PROSPECTUS

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1)
Registration No. 333-276724

2,760,000 Shares of Common Stock and Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase 3,963,684 Shares of Common Stock

We are offering up to 6,723,684 shares of common stock, including shares of common stock underlying Pre-Funded Warrants that we may issue as described below, at a purchase price of $0.38 per share of common stock pursuant to this prospectus.

We are also offering to certain purchasers whose purchase of shares of common stock in this offering would otherwise result in the purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% (or such other percentage as may be required by the investor) of our outstanding common stock immediately following the consummation of this offering, the opportunity to purchase, if any such purchaser so chooses, Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu of shares of common stock. The offering price for each Pre-Funded Warrant is $0.379.

The Pre-Funded Warrants will not have an expiration date and will be exercisable immediately. The exercise price for the Pre-Funded Warrants will be equal to $0.001.

We have also registered for public sale 67,237 shares of common stock, issuable to the placement agent upon the exercise of a warrant to be issued to the placement agent.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AGFY.” On February 27, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.5171 per share.

There is no established public trading market for the Pre-Funded Warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, we expect the liquidity of the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” as those terms are defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

You should read this prospectus, together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” carefully before you invest in our common stock.

__________________________________________

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

__________________________________________

 

Per Share

 

Per Pre-Funded Warrant

 

Total 

Offering price

 

$

0.38

 

$

0.379

 

$

2,551,036.24

Placement agent fees(1)

 

$

0.0266

 

$

0.02653

 

$

178,572.54

Proceeds, before expenses, to Agrify(2)

 

$

0.3534

 

$

0.35247

 

$

2,372,463.70

____________

(1)      In addition to placement agent fees, Agrify has agreed to reimburse the placement agent for certain expenses. In addition, we will issue to the placement agent a warrant to purchase up to one percent (1%) of the aggregate number of shares of common stock (or Pre-Funded Warrants) issued in this offering. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 115 of this prospectus for additional information regarding total placement agent compensation.

(2)      Does not give effect to any exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants being issued in this offering.

We have retained Alexander Capital, L.P. as our exclusive placement agent to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit offers to purchase the securities in this offering. The placement agent has no obligation to buy any of the securities from us or to arrange for the purchase or sale of any specific number or dollar amount of the securities. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing in this offering, the actual public offering amount, placement agent fees, and proceeds to us, if any, are not presently determinable and may be substantially less than the total maximum offering amounts set forth above.

__________________________________________

We expect to deliver the securities to investors on or about February 28, 2024.

ALEXANDER CAPITAL, L.P.

The date of this prospectus is February 28, 2024

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

We have not, and the placement agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. When you make a decision about whether to invest in our securities, you should not rely upon any information other than the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. Neither the delivery of this prospectus nor the sale of our securities means that the information contained in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus is correct after the date of this prospectus or such free writing prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy our securities in any circumstances under which the offer or solicitation is unlawful.

For investors outside the United States: We have not, and the placement agent has not, taken any action that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities covered hereby and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information from our own management estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. Our management estimates have not been verified by any independent source, and we have not independently verified any third-party information. In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus, including Agrify®. Solely for our convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the “®” or “™” symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent possible under applicable law, our rights or the rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. Each trademark, trade name, or service mark of any other company appearing in this prospectus is the property of its respective holder.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. It may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the discussion regarding the risks of investing in our securities under the heading “Risk Factors,” before investing in our securities. All references to “Company” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Agrify Corporation and its subsidiaries and not to the persons who manage us or sit on our Board of Directors.

Business Overview

We are a leading provider of innovative cultivation and extraction solutions for the cannabis industry, bringing data, science, and technology to the forefront of the market. Our proprietary micro-environment-controlled Agrify Vertical Farming Units (or “VFUs”) enable cultivators to produce high quality products with what we believe to be unmatched consistency, yield, and return investment at scale. Our comprehensive extraction product line, which includes hydrocarbon, alcohol, solventless, post-processing, and lab equipment, empowers producers to maximize the quantity and quality of extract required for premium concentrates.

Since our inception, we have gone from primarily developing, selling, and supporting our VFUs along with our fully integrated Agrify Insights™ cultivation software (“Agrify Insights™”) to being able to offer customers a far more complete set of solutions, products, and services across both cultivation and extraction. This has been a function of both our natural evolution and through a set of strategic mergers and acquisitions. Since 2020, we have integrated six new brands into Agrify’s broader organization. Our first acquisition, TriGrow Systems, Inc., was completed in January 2020. TriGrow Systems, Inc. was formerly the exclusive distributor of Agrify’s VFUs. We added Harbor Mountain Holdings, LLC to our portfolio on July 21, 2020, to help scale up our manufacturing strategy with engineering, prototyping, manufacturing, testing, warehousing, and installation services. Since October 2021, we have been strategically focused on establishing ourselves as a global leader in the cannabis and hemp extraction equipment industry, complementing our cutting-edge cannabis and hemp cultivation solutions. Over five months, we acquired four of the top brand names in the industry. On October 1, 2021, we acquired Precision Extraction Solutions, a market leader in developing and producing high-quality hydrocarbon and alcohol extraction solutions, and Cascade Sciences, LLC, a market leader in developing and producing high-quality vacuum purge ovens and decarboxylation ovens. On December 31, 2021, we acquired PurePressure, LLC, a market leader in developing and producing high-quality solventless extraction solutions and advanced ice-water hash processing equipment in the cannabis and hemp industry. Lastly, on February 1, 2022, we completed our acquisition of LS Holdings Corp., a market leader in developing and producing high-quality distillation and solvent separation solutions for the cannabis and hemp industry.

We now offer our customers an extensive ecosystem of solutions, products, training, and service capabilities in what has historically been a highly fragmented market. Our offerings, which are described in more detail below, are compelling on their own. However, we believe what sets us apart is our ability to bring to the market the most comprehensive set of cultivation and extraction solutions from a single provider. As a result, we believe we are well-positioned to capture market share and create a dominant market position in the indoor cannabis sector. We currently have two primary areas of business focus:

        Cultivation Solutions; and

        Extraction Solutions.

Cultivation Solutions

While we do not cultivate, come in contact with, distribute, or dispense cannabis or any cannabis derivatives that are currently prohibited under U.S. federal law, our equipment and business solutions can be used within indoor grow facilities by fully licensed cannabis cultivators. We sell our proprietary cultivation solutions to independent licensed cultivators. The two primary products we sell are the VFUs and Agrify Insights™. We believe we are one of a limited number of companies offering a fully integrated cultivation solution optimized for precision growing with robust automation capabilities in the industry.

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Agrify Vertical Farming Unit

Our proprietary VFU technology offers a modular, compartmentalized micro-climate growing system for indoor vertical farming. Our VFU system is designed for craft farmers, single-state operators, and multi-state operators who are looking to consistently produce higher-quality crops at scale. The VFUs are designed to line up horizontally in rows, and can be stacked vertically up to three units tall, taking advantage of unused indoor vertical space with the below benefits:

        Superior Floor Space Utilization.    Each VFU provides two tiers of growing canopy. Our units introduce an open-room facility design approach to maximize available cultivation floor space while offering superior risk mitigation via individual compartmentalized cultivation chambers which aim to contain potential biological threats to cultivation facilities.

        Precise Environmental Controls.    Each VFU has an Environmental Control Unit that is integrated with our proprietary cultivation software, Agrify Insights™. This integration allows for precise control and automation over light photoperiod and intensity, temperature, humidity, vapor pressure deficit (“VPD”), carbon dioxide, fertigation, and irrigation throughout the lifecycle of the plants.

        Modular Scalability.    The VFU is designed to stack up to three units tall, sextupling production volume over the same traditional footprint. Each unit is designed to easily integrate with a mezzanine catwalk system providing unparalleled access to all levels of cultivation.

        Worker Safety & Efficiency.    The VFU’s design was thoughtful and intentional; from the ergonomic dimensions that facilitate safe, easy access to plants for scouting and plant husbandry, to the integrated catwalks that allow cultivators to work from a safe sitting or standing position without the need for scissor lifts, ladders or removable platforms.

        Biosecurity and Risk Mitigation.    The VFU has a motorized curtain on both sides of the unit that encloses the grow area to prevent light pollution and the spread of disease that would typically lead to facility-wide crop failure. Contamination can be controlled and limited to the affected units, which are designed with sanitation in mind. From the aluminum frame to the selection of antimicrobial plastics and down to the IP65 electronics and polycarbonate-lensed LED lights, the entire VFU can be easily sanitized, especially with the VFU’s High Heat mode, which helps sanitize all internal VFU surfaces effortlessly.

Agrify Insights™

The VFUs are designed to work in conjunction with our Agrify Insights™ software. Each VFU sold includes a license for Agrify Insights™ and a monthly Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) subscription fee is charged per VFU. The VFU cannot operate successfully without Agrify Insights™, and we typically charge between $1,500 to $2,400 per VFU sold annually. Agrify Insights™ license agreements are generally for a multi-year term, with an annual auto-renewal.

Agrify Insights™ is a SaaS-based solution that interfaces with our proprietary hardware to provide customers with real-time control and monitoring of facilities, growing conditions and insights into both production and profit optimization. The combination of precise environmental control and automation with data collection and actionable insights empowers our customers to be more efficient, more productive, and more intelligent about how they run their businesses. We believe that the robust data analytics capabilities from our Agrify Insights™ platform, coupled with our VFU system, is enabling our customers to transform their businesses and quality of the product they are cultivating.

Agrify Insights™ is focused on optimizing four key components:

        Optimization at the plant level;

        Optimization at the VFU unit level;

        Optimization at the facility level; and

        Optimization at the business level.

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When these key components are combined, they encompass the cultivation operations of an Agrify customer. By reducing human error and providing insights through data collection and analysis, Agrify Insights™ minimizes risk and increases operational efficiencies. Ultimately, our customers seek to produce end products with the highest level of consistency no matter where they are located.

Plant-Level Optimization

Central to our solution is granular control of the cultivation environment. A crop’s end-product is determined by the plant’s genetics and the environment in which the plants are grown. Control over the growing environment is accomplished through the integration of Agrify Insights™. Agrify Insights collects data from multiple sensors on a per plant basis between 4 and 60 times an hour. This can result in between 100 thousand and 151 million data points annually, depending on the number of plants and fluctuations in the VFU microclimate. By recording data points and reproducing specific environments based on the data, cultivators can effectively minimize the variation in their crops and dial-in the maximum quality. Individual plant varietals can be optimized by tailoring the grow plan (recipe for cultivation) to enhance genetic traits; increasing the temperature can speed chemical processes and growth rates and adjusting the length of different phases of a plant’s lifecycle can maximize the crop’s yield. Additionally, when new varieties of plants are cultivated, having multiple controlled, compartmentalized, growth chambers allow for iterative experiments which offer real insight into how new varieties are best cultivated which is beneficial for research and development purposes.

Our “Grow Plans” are the templates or recipes that define the parameters for each lifecycle. Grow Plans define the environmental settings (light-photoperiod and intensity, temperature, humidity, VPD, CO2, irrigation, fertigation) for each crop variety and cultivator as well as the schedule for completing, as applicable, “plant touching” tasks such as bottoming, pruning, and harvesting. Agrify Insights™ ships to the customer with many pre-developed Grow Plans and customers can create their own Grow Plans, electing to share them with other customers or not.

Individual VFU Level Optimization

Our VFU hardware provides cultivation environmental control within the grow chamber. This hardware and its component valves, motors and sensors are directed and controlled by Agrify Insights™.

        Monitor and Control Agrify Hardware.    Agrify Insights™ can either automatically or manually control our hardware. For example, the water-chilled fan coil can keep the temperature in a range accurate to 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

        Cultivation Environmental Control.    Using Agrify Insights™, users can view environmental charts that plot temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide over time. It also shows when plant irrigation occurs and whether the unit is in cooling, circulating, or dehumidifying mode. We sample these values every minute and report them back to the cloud every 15 minutes or more often if significant changes occur. Each growing chamber reports millions of data points annually, enabling our clients to perform an in-depth analysis of their grow performance. The manual control screen visualizes the current state of the grow chamber and allows our technicians to take direct control for troubleshooting, if necessary. The device log shows us what decisions were made by Agrify Insights™ and why.

Facility Level Optimization

Our modular VFUs are deployed in scale at a customer’s facility with the smallest commercial operation deployment being 60 VFUs to date. Agrify Insights™ is designed to operate these individual VFUs as a combined facility. Agrify Insights™ features at the facility level include:

        Production Planning.    The production planning feature is designed to maximize a facility’s utilization by executing a “best-fit” scheduling algorithm to selected Grow Plans across VFUs that have been deployed at a customer facility. Since grow plans typically have a different number of growing days that start on staggered schedules, this module is a critical component for optimizing the planting and moving schedules, significantly increasing plant production, and reducing the cost per pound of harvest.

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        Workforce Management.    Agrify Insights™ includes a workforce planning feature to assign tasks to staff. These tasks can be automatically assigned based on the user role or their knowledge, skills, and abilities. The calendar displays the estimated time required to complete plant-touching tasks on any given day.

        Automatic Notification System.    Users can select to subscribe to anomalous events, and users are notified in the order in which they are listed. If a user does not acknowledge the notification within the specified time frame, the next user in the list is notified, providing the business with 24/7 monitoring and notifications.

        Preventative Maintenance.    Our equipment and facility preventative maintenance schedules and related tasks are contained, tracked, and monitored within Agrify Insights™.

        Facility Infrastructure Controls.    Agrify Insights™ controls the irrigation on a facility level and connects with the water chilled HVAC system and ambient lighting system, providing our customers with a central piece of software for facility management.

Optimization at the Business Level

Agrify Insights™ analysis features enable customers to understand how cultivation decisions impact their overall business. Understanding the data from the cultivation facility can help our customers better plan and make informed decisions that impact downstream parts of their business.

        Consumables Procurement Integration.    Each task can also be assigned a set of consumables whose inventory will be reduced when the task is started. This feature can help customers manage supply levels and can automatically create purchase orders so that they never run out of required supplies.

        Online Standard Operating Procedures (“SOPs’’) and Safety Datasheets.    Agrify Insights™ hosts digital copies of our included Standard Operating Procedures and datasheets, or users can upload their own via our content management system, ensuring that the most recent version of SOPs and forms are available to users.

        Roles-Based Dashboards.    Ability to obtain access to information specifically suited to your workforce’s various needs. Facility owners have access to high-level information about crop yields and equipment usage in an easy-to-understand scorecard. Farm managers receive a worksheet and calendar that lets them manage their workforce and automatically assign plant-touching tasks. This also provides facility managers with an ongoing window into consumables and lets them set inventory levels.

        Data Collection.    Agrify Insights™ is a centralized repository for all data relating to the cultivation aspects of our clients’ business, including research and development testing data, and the ability to capture and compare test results. By doing so, Agrify Insights™ becomes a customers’ cultivation statement of record.

        Financial Simulator/What If Scenarios.    Our operating expenses (“OpEx”) calculator enables users to evaluate impacts to profitability by changing hundreds of attributes including, but not limited to, changes to costs in labor, electric, water, CO, and growing media as well as potential volatility in yields and pricing.

        Regulatory Reporting Integration.    We have integrated our software with Metrc, a leading seed-to-harvest compliance management and tracking solution, which will enable our customers to handle most regulatory reporting directly through Agrify Insights™.

Cultivation Deployment Options

Rapid Deployment Pack (“RDP”) Program

The RDP program was established in 2022 to make it easier for a broader range of customers to access our award-winning cultivation technology. Featuring our flagship VFUs in a prepackaged, self-contained, and quick-to-deploy format, the thoughtfully designed and engineered RDPs offer an accelerated path to production, cash flow, and profitability for customers. By removing certain barriers and points of friction with the RDPs, we can

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provide customers who have properly equipped facilities with best-in-class cultivation capabilities in potentially as little as 90 days. Once installed, the modular nature of the RDPs allows for seamless expansion opportunities, enabling customers the flexibility to grow and scale.

TTK Solution

While we do not intend to enter into any new TTK Solutions for the foreseeable future, we have deployed this program with certain key customers. We also believe that our data-driven TTK Solution for cultivation solutions is unlike any other customer solution being offered and enables our customers to get to market faster by providing them with our seamlessly integrated hardware and software offerings as well as access to capital and a wide range of associated services from experts including consulting, training, design, engineering, and construction to form what we believe is the most complete solution available from a single provider. We engage qualified cannabis operators in the early phases of their business plans and provide critical support, typically over a 10-year period.

Our TTK Solution provides our valued customers with the benefit of working with a single, highly qualified provider in what has historically been a decentralized market full of piecemeal solutions that were not necessarily designed and engineered to work harmoniously with one another. Given the significant shortcomings associated with traditional indoor grow methods across all commercial agriculture segments, it was apparent that a new paradigm in indoor cultivation was needed, which is why we have brought a more modern, manufacturing style approach that is process driven through technology and measured via data and analytics. Overall, our holistic approach to addressing our customers’ cultivation needs treats their production facilities as an end-to-end ecosystem whose success depends on all components working together optimally. Despite the rapidly growing cannabis and hemp industry, many growers and processors face some significant obstacles to their operations that pose a serious threat to their long-term viability.

We believe Agrify’s proprietary TTK Solution is the key to resolving many of the challenges our customers encounter. We have set ourselves apart by bringing to market a horticulturist expertise, bundled solution of state-of-the-art equipment, software and services that is turn-key, end-to-end, fully integrated and optimized for precision growing and extraction. Agrify’s TTK Solution provides customers with the following bundled equipment and services:

        Facility design, lab design, and engineering services

        Facility and lab build-out project management

        Agrify VFUs

        Agrify data driven Agrify Insights™

        Agrify extraction products

        Expert horticulturist training and ongoing support

Extraction Solutions

While we do not extract, come in contact with, distribute, process, or dispense cannabis or hemp or any cannabis or hemp derivatives that are currently prohibited under U.S. federal law, our extraction equipment and business solutions can be used within indoor processing facilities by fully licensed cannabis and hemp cultivators and processors or in some cases, by individual processors for individual use in compliance with applicable law. We sell our proprietary extraction solutions to independent, licensed cultivators and processing labs.

Cannabis represents a potential cornucopia of medicinal and pharmaceutical advancement. Cannabis produces over 550 different phytochemicals, over 120 of which are cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) and cannabidiol (“CBD”). Other cannabinoids like varins, cannabigerivarin (“CBGV”), tetrahydrocannabivarin (“THCV”), and cannabidivarin (“CBDV”) are less well known and potentially offer significant value. As we continue to learn more about the complex chemical composition of cannabis, the need for distillation solutions is clear. Distillation enables the identification, isolation, and separation of valuable cannabis metabolites. The ability to take cannabis compounds distilled into their pure forms, and then recombine them into specific, purposeful end-products could have significant potential for the pharmaceutical industry in the future.

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As stated previously, we strategically acquired four of the top brands in the extraction space in late 2021 and early 2022 in Precision Extraction, PurePressure, Lab Society, and Cascade Sciences. These iconic brands encompass everything from hydrocarbon, alcohol, and solventless extraction to distillation and post-processing and have supported and continue to support over 90% of legal operators in one fashion or another.

Combined, these four acquisitions provide what we believe to be the most comprehensive extraction solutions from a single provider, with over 7,000 customers, including over 30 Multi-State-Operators, and some of the best extraction labs in the industry. Our leading extraction brands provide equipment and solutions for extraction, post-processing, and testing for the cannabis and hemp industries. The extraction, post-processing and testing services are complementary and highly attractive areas of the supply chain.

Our extraction division now offers cutting-edge technologies and end-to-end service solutions. Solutions from the extraction division include equipment, technology, facility and lab design, training, and extensive research and development capabilities. By providing new hardware-as-a-service we intend to capture higher margin recurring revenue and supply chain optimization through streamlined product sourcing, purchasing, manufacturing, and warehousing.

These acquisitions have greatly expanded our product and service offerings in the post-harvest segment of the supply chain. We believe we are positioning Agrify as one of the most vertically integrated total solutions provider for our cannabis and hemp customers. According to a report published by Grand View Research in November 2022, the global cannabis extraction market is expected to potentially grow to $15.5 billion by 2030, and as the cannabis industry continues to experience rapid growth globally, we expect the sales of our extraction solutions to follow a similar growth trajectory.

Cannabis Market Opportunity

While we do not cultivate, come in contact with, distribute or dispense cannabis or any cannabis derivatives that are currently prohibited under U.S. federal law, our cultivation solutions can be used within state-licensed indoor grow facilities by cannabis cultivators if they choose to do so.

In the U.S., the development and growth of the regulated medical and recreational (adult-use) cannabis industry has generally been driven by state law and regulation, and accordingly, the market varies on a state-by-state basis. State laws that legalize and regulate cannabis for medicinal reasons allow patients to consume cannabis with a designated healthcare provider’s recommendation, subject to various requirements and limitations. As of January 2023, 39 states have passed laws allowing their citizens to use medical cannabis. On top of this medical condition growth trend, there has been a slow but steady increase in the number of states that have chosen to legalize cannabis for recreational use. As of January 2023, 21 states have passed laws allowing their citizens to use recreational cannabis. Shifting public attitudes and state law and legislative activity are driving this change as indicated by a 2019 poll by Quinnipiac University that found that 93% of Americans support patient access to medical-use cannabis if recommended by a doctor, which was the same level of support from a similar poll conducted by Quinnipiac University in 2018. Similarly, the trend toward further legalization and regulation of cannabis sales is spreading globally. As of the date of this report, over 70 countries outside the U.S. currently have medicinal cannabis regulation in force, and that number is expected to significantly increase over time.

Given that the market size of legal cannabis in the U.S. in 2022 was estimated to be $27.7 billion according to MarketsandMarkets research Pvt Ltd, and 88% of legal U.S. cannabis cultivators grow indoors (Fluence 2022 Industry lighting report), we estimate that the indoor segment of the legal U.S. cannabis sector is a $10 billion market with the expectation that there will be even more growth on the horizon. A recent report from statista.com projected global cannabis revenue to reach $47.2 billion in 2023, with annual growth rate of 12.69%, with a projected global market volume of $76.1 billion by 2027.

The different cultivation environments for cannabis each have advantages and disadvantages, and this leads to a variance in price points based on quality, actual and perceived, and process. Based on the Fluence 2022 state of the cannabis industry lighting report, 88% of cultivators have some or all of their facilities growing indoors, up 9% over 2021.

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Our Competitive Strengths

We believe our business has, and our future success will be driven by, the following competitive strengths:

        Innovative Technology in an Attractive Growing Industry.    Our innovative solutions are aimed at large and growing U.S. domestic and global markets. We believe we are the only provider of a fully integrated end-to-end hardware and software turnkey solution for indoor cultivation and extraction facilities that allows customers to produce high-quality products with consistency at scale while meeting the growing demand and needs of end users at a relatively low cost. As such, we believe we have a first mover advantage due to innovating this new type of smart cannabis and hemp cultivation and processing solution, which is already designed, manufactured, and implemented in several commercial scale deployments across multiple states within the U.S.

        Integrated Proprietary Components.    We design and create our own hardware, software, and SOPs from the ground up rather than buying piecemeal from third parties. We take a systems-engineered integrated approach that we believe has inherent advantages over other, ad-hoc systems.

        Emphasis on Precision and Consistency Through Our Proprietary Grow Solutions.    While being able to help our customers increase capacity, yield and consequently revenues holds a tremendous amount of value, we believe that our biggest differentiator is our ability to impact the actual quality and consistency of the output by controlling the environment in which the crops are grown and all the variables that influence harvests with an unparalleled level of precision. The by-product of our TTK Solution is that our customers can create consistent high-quality products with repeatability from anywhere similar to any other consumer product company that provides a branded food or drink product.

        Emphasis on Precision and Consistency Through Our Extraction Division.    In addition to our premium grow solutions, we have begun offering our customers industry leading cannabis and hemp extraction equipment, design, and training solutions. By acquiring leading brands earlier this year, we are immediately able to offer our customers premium solutions to meet their processing needs in this rapidly expanding sector.

        Market Knowledge and Understanding.    We have extensive experience with controlled agriculture environments, extraction, post-processing, and scale-up manufacturing, as well as industry technical knowledge and relationships. We are keenly aware of the struggles that indoor cultivators and extractors face, and we serve as a credible and collaborative partner through the entire customer lifecycle. We believe that our fully integrated TTK Solution, extraction equipment and ancillary services are the key to resolving many of the challenges our customers face.

        Differentiated Business Model.    Unlike many of our competitors, we offer a diversified mix of hardware, software, and services, which leads to potential multiple revenue streams. Given the nature of our deployments, we become deeply embedded in our customers’ operations through our numerous product offerings. This puts us in a position where customer success is directly tied to our equipment. Our ability to differentiate our business model provides us with multiple opportunities to expand our installed user base, which we believe will lead to future high-margin and stable recurring SaaS revenues, via our Agrify Insights™ and production fee revenues.

Our Growth Strategy

We have developed a multi-pronged growth strategy as described below to help us capitalize on the sizable opportunity at hand. Through methodical sales and marketing efforts, cultivation and extraction solutions, and scale-up manufacturing, we believe we have implemented several key initiatives we can use to grow our business more effectively. We also intend to opportunistically pursue the strategies described below to continue our upward trajectory and enhance shareholder value. We believe we have significantly improved our new bookings and qualified pipeline. With our expanded product line that includes quality extraction solutions, we have become more attractive to our prospects and customers, enhancing our overall appeal and the scope of opportunities we are able to pursue. We expect our qualified pipeline and new bookings of opportunities to continue to grow.

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Regulatory Implications of Providing Equipment and Services in the Cannabis and Hemp Industry

We sell products and services that end users may purchase for use in industries or segments, including the growing and processing of cannabis and hemp, which are subject to varying, inconsistent, and rapidly changing laws, regulations, administrative practices, enforcement approaches, judicial interpretations, and consumer perceptions. For example, certain countries and 38 U.S. states have adopted frameworks that authorize, regulate, and tax the cultivation, processing, sale, and use of cannabis for medicinal and/or non-medicinal use, while the U.S. Controlled Substances Act and the laws of other U.S. states prohibit growing cannabis. In addition, with the passage of the Farm Bill in December 2018, hemp cultivation is now broadly permitted. The Farm Bill explicitly allows the transfer of hemp-derived products across state lines for commercial or other purposes. It also removes restrictions on the sale, transport, or possession of hemp-derived products, so long as those items are produced in a manner consistent with the law. Our products are multi-purpose products and may be used on a wide range of plants and are purchased by cultivators who may grow any variety of plants, including cannabis and hemp.

Although the majority of states now have laws that regulate or decriminalize various types of cannabis use, marijuana remains a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, making it illegal under federal law in the U.S. to, among other things, cultivate, distribute or possess cannabis in the U.S. In those states in which the use of marijuana has been legalized, its use remains a violation of federal law pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act. The Controlled Substances Act classifies marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance, and as such, medical and adult cannabis use is illegal under U.S. federal law. Unless and until the U.S. Congress amends the Controlled Substances Act with respect to marijuana (and the President approves such amendment), there is a risk that federal authorities may enforce current federal law. Financial transactions involving proceeds generated by, or intended to promote, cannabis-related business activities in the U.S. may form the basis for prosecution under applicable U.S. federal money laundering legislation. The approach to enforcement of such laws by the federal government in the U.S. has trended toward non-enforcement against individuals and businesses that comply with medical or adult-use cannabis regulatory programs in states where such programs are legal, strict compliance with state laws with respect to cannabis.

In most states that have legalized medical- and recreational-use cannabis in some form, the growing, processing and/or dispensing of cannabis generally requires that the operator obtain one or more licenses in accordance with applicable state requirements. In addition, many states regulate various aspects of the growing, processing and/or dispensing of cannabis and hemp. Local governments in some cases also impose rules and regulations on the manner of operating cannabis and hemp businesses. As a result, applicable state and local laws and regulations vary widely, including, but not limited to, regulations governing the medical cannabis program, product testing, the level of enforcement by state and local authorities on non-licensed cannabis operators, state and local taxation of regulated cannabis products, local municipality bans on operations and operator licensing processes and renewals.

As part of its rigorous due diligence policy on all potential customers, we carefully review the appropriate licensure of each potential customer in the cannabis and hemp industry for compliance with applicable local, state, and federal laws. We are not involved in the cultivation, processing, or retail of cannabis products and never takes a controlling interest in any of the operations of its cannabis customers as a matter of state law.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, which we refer to as the JOBS Act. As a result, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other companies that are not emerging growth companies. Accordingly, for so long as we are an “emerging growth company,” we will not be required to:

        engage an auditor to report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

        comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);

        submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency,” and “say-on-golden parachutes;” or

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        disclose certain executive compensation-related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and the comparison of the chief executive officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards.

We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of:

        our reporting $1 billion or more in annual gross revenues;

        our issuance, in a three-year period, of more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt;

        the end of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter; and

        December 31, 2026.

We cannot predict if investors will find our securities less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions, which could result in a less active trading market for our securities and increased volatility in the price of our securities.

Finally, we are a “smaller reporting company” (and may continue to qualify as such even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company) and accordingly may provide less public disclosure than larger public companies, including the inclusion of only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosure. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.

Recent Developments

Note Acquisition and Warrant Issuance

On October 27, 2023, following the execution of the Modification Agreement (as defined below), CP Acquisitions LLC (the “New Lender”), an entity affiliated with and controlled by Raymond Chang, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and I-Tseng Jenny Chan, a member of our Board of Directors, purchased from an institutional investor (the “Former Lender”) the Senior Secured Note issued by us to the Former Lender on August 19, 2022 (the “Exchange Note”) and the Senior Secured Convertible Note issued by us to the Former Lender on March 10, 2023 (the “Convertible Note”). As a condition to the Note Purchase, we and the New Lender entered into an acknowledgment and release (the “Release Agreement”) with the Former Lender, pursuant to which we and the New Lender released the Former Lender from any claims, demands, actions, suits, obligations and causes of action arising on or before the date thereof.

On October 27, 2023, as a condition precedent to the Note Purchase, we entered into a letter agreement (the “Letter Agreement”) with the Former Lender. Pursuant to the Letter Agreement, we agreed, immediately prior to the note purchase transaction, to exchange $3.0 million in principal and approximately $1.1 million in accrued but unpaid interest outstanding under the Exchange Note for a warrant (the “Exchange Warrant”) to purchase 2,809,669 shares of common stock. Additionally, we agreed to exchange the 375,629 shares of common stock held in abeyance for the Former Lender under the terms of the letter agreement between us and the Former Lender dated as of April 26, 2023 for a warrant to purchase 375,629 shares of common stock (the “Abeyance Warrant”).

Each of the Exchange Warrant and the Abeyance Warrant has an exercise price of $0.001 per share, became exercisable upon issuance, has a term of five years from the date of issuance and is exercisable on a cash basis or on a cashless exercise basis at the Former Lender’s election. The Former Lender exercised the Exchange Warrant and Abeyance Warrant in full during January and February 2024.

Note Amendment and Secured Promissory Note

On July 12, 2023, we issued an unsecured promissory note in favor of GIC Acquisition, LLC (“GIC”), an entity that is owned and managed by Raymond Chang, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. On October 27, 2023, we and GIC amended and restated the Note (the “GIC Note”). Pursuant to the terms of the GIC Note, as restated,

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the maturity date was extended until December 31, 2023 and we granted a junior security interest in our assets. On January 25, 2024, we and GIC amended and restated the GIC Note to increase the principal amount thereunder to $1.0 million, all of which is currently outstanding under the GIC Note, and to extend the maturity date until June 30, 2024.

Concurrently with the restatement of the GIC Note, we issued a junior secured promissory note (the “Junior Secured Note”) to the New Lender. Pursuant to the Junior Secured Note, the New Lender loaned an aggregate of approximately $4.0 million to us. The Junior Secured Note bore interest at a rate of 10% per annum, had a maturity date of December 31, 2023, and could be prepaid without any fee or penalty. The Junior Secured Note was a junior secured obligation.

Note Amendment, Consolidation and Conversion

On January 25, 2024, following stockholder approval at an annual meeting of stockholders on January 8, 2024, we and the New Lender consolidated the outstanding principal and interest due under the Junior Secured Note and the Exchange Note into the Convertible Note and amended and restated the Convertible Note (as amended and restated, the “Restated Note”), with an outstanding principal amount of approximately $18.9 million at the time of issuance of the Restated Note. The Restated Note amended the terms of the Convertible Note by, among other things, (i) reducing the conversion price to $1.46 per share of common stock, (ii) increasing the beneficial ownership limitation to 49.99% with respect to any individual or group, provided that the New Lender may assign its right to receive shares upon conversion to Mr. Chang and/or Ms. Chan or their affiliates, in which case the 49.99% beneficial ownership limitation will apply to each of them individually, (iii) extending the maturity date to December 31, 2025, (iv) increasing the interest rate from 9% to 10% per annum, (v) increasing the default interest from 15% to 18% per annum, and (vi) providing for the payment of interest every six months, or in lieu of cash interest payments, we may issue shares as payments-in-kind at a conversion price equal to the higher of (i) $1.46 or (ii) a 20% discount to our trailing seven-day volume weighted average price as of the date of interest payment. Immediately following the execution of the Restated Note, the New Lender immediately elected to convert approximately $3.9 million of outstanding principal into an aggregate of 2,671,633 shares of common stock, and assigned its rights to receive such shares to entities affiliated with Mr. Chang and Ms. Chan. Following the conversion, there was $15.0 million in principal amount outstanding under the Restated Note.

Mack Molding Settlement and Warrant Issuance

Immediately prior to the note purchase described above on October 27, 2023, and with an effective date as of October 18, 2023, we entered into a Modification and Settlement Agreement (the “Modification Agreement”) with Mack Molding Company (“Mack”). Pursuant to the Modification Agreement, we and Mack agreed to settle an outstanding dispute of approximately $8.24 million under a Supply Agreement between the parties dated December 7, 2020 (the “Supply Agreement”) by reducing the aggregate amount due to Mack and extending the timeline for payment. The Modification Agreement requires us to make payments of $500,000 and $250,000 to Mack on or before November 1, 2023 and February 15, 2024, respectively. Following the November 1, 2023 payment, we will be entitled to take possession of certain Vertical Farming Units (“VFUs”) that were assembled under the Supply Agreement. The Modification Agreement also requires us to purchase from Mack a minimum of 25 VFUs per quarter for each quarter during 2024 and a minimum of 50 VFUs per quarter for the six quarters beginning with the first quarter of 2025. We are required to pay a storage fee of $25,000 per month for VFUs subject to the Modification Agreement.

Additionally, as part of the Modification Agreement, we agreed to issue to Mack a warrant (the “Mack Warrant”) to purchase 750,000 shares of common stock. The Mack Warrant has an exercise price of $4.00 per share, was exercisable upon issuance, has a term of three years from the date of issuance and is exercisable on a cash basis unless at the time of exercise there is no effective registration statement for the resale of the underlying shares, in which case the Mack Warrant may be exercised on a cashless exercise basis at Mack’s election.

Nasdaq Notices and Hearing

On April 18, 2023, we received a notice (the “April Nasdaq Notice”) from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) that we were noncompliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Form 10-K”) with the SEC by the required due date.

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On May 17, 2023, we received a second notice from Nasdaq (the “May Nasdaq Notice”) that we remained noncompliant with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 (the “First Quarter Form 10-Q”) with the SEC by the required due date.

On August 16, 2023, we received a third notice from Nasdaq that we remain noncompliant with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2023 (the “Second Quarter Form 10-Q”) with the SEC by the required filing date (the “August Nasdaq Notice” and, together with the April Nasdaq Notice and the May Nasdaq Notice, the “Nasdaq Notices”).

On October 17, 2023, we received a Staff Delisting Determination (the “Staff Determination”) from the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements under the Listing Rule as a result of our failure to file the First Quarter Form 10-Q, the Second Quarter Form 10-Q and the Form 10-K (collectively, the “Delinquent Reports”) in a timely manner. We filed each of the Delinquent Reports between November 28, 2023 and January 3, 2024.

On December 1, 2023, we received a notice Nasdaq stating that because we reported stockholders’ equity of $(17.17) million in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, we were no longer in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1), which requires that listed companies maintain a minimum of $2.5 million in stockholders’ equity.

We timely requested a hearing before the Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”), which hearing was held on January 11, 2024. At the hearing, we presented a plan to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1). On January 30, 2024, we received formal notice that the Panel had granted our request for an exception through April 15, 2024 to evidence compliance with Rule 5550(b)(1), which represents the full extent of the Panel’s discretion to grant continued listing. As a result, there can be no assurance that we can regain compliance by the end of the extension period.

We will take all possible actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq, but we can provide no assurances that the listing of our common stock will be restored or that we otherwise will remain listed on Nasdaq. If we fail to continue to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq will take steps to delist our common stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair stockholders’ ability to sell or purchase our common stock when they wish to do so, as well as adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and obtain additional financing in the future.

Corporate Information

Agrify Corporation was incorporated in the state of Nevada on June 6, 2016, originally incorporated as Agrinamics, Inc. (or Agrinamics). On September 16, 2019, Agrinamics amended its articles of incorporation to reflect a name change to Agrify Corporation. Our executive offices are located at 2468 Industrial Row, Dr., Troy, Michigan 48084. Our telephone number at our executive offices is (855) 420-0020. Our website address is www.agrify.com. Our website and the information contained in, or accessible through, our website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and does not constitute part of this prospectus. You should not rely on any such information in making your decision whether to purchase our securities.

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THE OFFERING

Common Stock offered by us

 

2,760,000 shares of our common stock.

Pre-Funded Warrants offered by us

 

We are also offering to certain purchasers whose purchase of shares of common stock in this offering would otherwise result in the purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% (or such other percentage as may be required by the investor) of our outstanding common stock immediately following the consummation of this offering, the opportunity to purchase, if any such purchaser so chooses, Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase up to 3,963,684 shares of our common stock in lieu of shares of our common stock. Each Pre-Funded Warrant will have an exercise price equal to $0.001 per share and is immediately exercisable. The Pre-Funded Warrants will not expire. See “Description of Securities — Pre-Funded Warrants to be Issued in this Offering.”

Common stock outstanding after this offering

 


10,265,114 shares, assuming that we sell all securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and assuming that none of the Pre-Funded Warrants are exercised.

Price per share of common stock

 

$0.38 public offering price per share of common stock.

Price per Pre-Funded Warrant

 

$0.379 public offering price per pre-funded warrant.

Placement Agent Warrants

 

The registration statement of which this prospectus is a part also registers for sale the 67,237 shares of common stock issuable pursuant to the warrants to be issued to Alexander Capital, L.P., as placement agent (the “Placement Agent Warrants”) (equal to one percent (1%) of the aggregate number of shares of common stock (or Pre-Funded Warrants) issued in this offering). The Placement Agent Warrants will be exercisable at any time, and from time to time, in whole or in part, during the period commencing 180 days from the date of commencement of sales of the securities being offering in this offering (the “Effective Date”) and expiring on the fifth (5th) year anniversary of the Effective Date at an exercise price of $0.38 per share (100% of the public offering price per share). Please see “Plan of Distribution — Placement Agent Warrants” on page 115 of this prospectus for a description of these warrants.

Placement Agent Compensation

 

In connection with this offering, the placement agent will receive a fee equal to seven percent (7.0%) of the aggregate gross proceeds raised in this offering. In addition, we have agreed to: (i) reimburse certain accountable expenses of the placement agent, and (ii) indemnify the placement agent for certain liabilities in connection with this offering. See “Plan of Distribution” starting on page 115 of this prospectus.

Use of proceeds

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities under this prospectus for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include capital expenditures and repayment of debt. We reserve the right, at the sole discretion of our management, to reallocate the proceeds of this offering in response to developments in our business and other factors. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 59 of this prospectus.

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Risk factors

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14 of this prospectus, for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

 

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AGFY.”

There is no established public trading market for the Pre-Funded Warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, we expect the liquidity of the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately after this offering as shown above is based on 7,505,114 shares outstanding as of February 28, 2024. The number of shares outstanding as of February 28, 2024 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants being offered by us in this offering and also excludes as of such date:

        2,245,011 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding, at a weighted average exercise price of $26.10 per share;

        10,334 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, at a weighted average exercise price of $1,593.86 per share;

        67,237 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Placement Agent Warrants;

        4,531 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units;

        57,450 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2022 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan;

        no shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2022 Employee Stock Purchase Plan;

        588 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance in connection with completed acquisitions; and

        10,273,973 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance in connection with the conversion of a secured convertible note held by CP Acquisitions, LLC.

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RISK FACTORS

Summary of Risk Factors

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

        our ability to continue as a “going concern”;

        our short operating history;

        risk of loss associated with our Total Turn-Key Solution (“TTK Solution”) Offerings;

        our ability to obtain additional financing;

        risks associated with strategic acquisitions;

        we have substantial debt and other financial obligations, and we may incur even more debt;

        risk associated with potential future impairment charges;

        our concentration of customers;

        our reliance on a limited base of suppliers;

        operational difficulties of our suppliers as a result of COVID-19;

        risks associated with having clients operating in the cannabis industry;

        the inability of our customers to meet their financial or contractual obligations;

        changes in our credit profile with respect to suppliers;

        our reliance on third parties to provide services;

        no assurance that our backlog and qualified pipeline will translate into bookings;

        our reliance on continued contributions of our CEO, Raymond Chang;

        intense competition for our products and services;

        our ability to protect and defend against intellectual property claims;

        our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property;

        assertion of intellectual property infringement claims;

        our ability to use net operating losses;

        our management and their affiliates control a substantial interest in us;

        our outstanding loans may not be forgivable;

        the potential for a large number of shares eligible for public sale could depress the market price of our common stock;

        our failure to regain compliance with the listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) could result in a de-listing of our common stock;

        the exercise of all or any number of outstanding warrants or the issuance of stock-based awards may dilute your holding of shares of our common stock;

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        provisions in our charter documents and Nevada law may prevent a change in control of our company;

        we are subject to reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and smaller reporting companies;

        we have no intention to declare any dividends to our shareholders;

        risks associated with a shortage of raw materials;

        litigation that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations;

        a prolonged economic downturn;

        risks related to the employment market and wages;

        liquidity of our common stock;

        financial reporting obligations and controls associated with being a public company;

        material weaknesses and ability to remediate them;

        data privacy and security concerns relating to our technology and practices;

        any potential failure of our information technology systems to perform adequately;

        evolving data privacy regulations and our ability to comply with them;

        risks related to trading ability of our common stock if our shares become subject to penny stock rules;

        the risk to our shareholders if we were to dissolve;

        risks related to analyst reports about us, our business or our market, or recommendations relating to our stock;

        increased costs and demands upon management as a result of being a public company; and

        inherent risks related to our financial and operational projections.

Risk Factors

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained herein, and any related free writing prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus, documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow or prospects could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our securities to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also carefully read the section below entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses, expect to continue to incur losses in the near term and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future, and as a result, our management has identified, and our auditors agreed that there is a substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern. Since inception, we have experienced recurring net losses which losses caused an accumulated deficit of approximately $266 million as of September 30, 2023. These factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

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We have a relatively short operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects.

We have a relatively short operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects. We have been in existence since June 2016 and much of our revenue growth occurred during 2021 and 2022. We have encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including those related to:

        market acceptance of our current and future products and services;

        changing regulatory environments and costs associated with compliance, particularly as related to our operations in the cannabis sector;

        our ability to compete with other companies offering similar products and services;

        our ability to effectively market our products and services and attract new clients;

        the amount and timing of operating expenses, particularly sales and marketing expenses, related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations, and infrastructure;

        our ability to control costs, including operating expenses;

        our ability to manage organic growth and growth fueled by acquisitions;

        public perception and acceptance of cannabis-related products and services generally; and

        general economic conditions and events.

If we do not manage these risks successfully, our business and financial performance will be adversely affected.

Potential risk of loss associated with our TTK Solution Offerings

During 2021, we introduced our TTK Solution, which among other things, includes financing arrangements related to both facility design and build services and equipment. These arrangements require a significant upfront investment of working capital over a one- to two-year period, before we start to receive repayment on the upfront construction advances and on our recurring monthly SaaS fees and production fees.

As of September 30, 2023, a significant amount of our working capital has been invested in funding our TTK Solution construction and equipment commitments.

We believe that there is a potential risk of loss associated with our ability to receive anticipated future payments that are in line with our projected financial unit metrics due to a host of variables including, but not limited to the following:

        as we are in the early stages of our TTK Solution offerings, the TTK Solution is currently an unproven business model;

        the TTK Solution offering requires a significant amount of capital and our collection of advanced amounts is subject to customer credit risk;

        our anticipated downstream production fee revenue assumes that our VFUs will successfully produce 35 pounds of product per VFU per year; and

        our anticipated returns are reliant upon our customers’ ability to market and sell the products.

During the year ended December 31, 2022, we established a reserve of approximately $12.5 million specifically related to Greenstone Holdings (“Greenstone”) TTK Solution. Greenstone is a related party because one of our former Agrify Brands employees and our VP of Engineering had a minority ownership. We established the reserve based upon our review of Greenstone’s financial stability, which would impact collectability, which is primarily the result of unfavorable market conditions within the Colorado market. On April 6, 2023, Denver Greens, LLC (“Denver Greens”) acquired certain interests in the Greenstone project through various transactions so that Denver Greens is now the operator of this TTK Solution. The Company wrote off the entire Greenstone loan receivable in 2022.

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On September 15, 2022, we provided a notice of default under the Bud & Mary’s TTK Agreement between us and Bud & Mary’s. On October 5, 2022, Bud & Mary’s filed a complaint in the Superior Court of Massachusetts in Suffolk County naming us as the defendant. Bud & Mary’s is seeking, among other relief, monetary damages in connection with alleged unfair or deceptive trade practices, breach of contract, and conversion arising from the Bud & Mary’s TTK Agreement. In response, we established a reserve of $14.7 million specifically related to Bud & Mary’s. We deemed it necessary to fully reserve the $14.7 million outstanding balance in the third quarter of 2022 due to the current litigation and the uncertainty of the customer’s ability to repay the outstanding balance. If we are unable to realize revenue from our TTK Solution offerings on a timely basis, or at all, or if we incur additional losses as a result of the Bud & Mary’s claim, our business and financial performance will be adversely affected.

We may require additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, may force us to delay, limit, reduce, or terminate our product manufacturing and development, and other operations.

At September 30, 2023, we had approximately $154 thousand of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash. Our operating plan may change because of factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Even if we are able to substantially increase revenue and reduce operational expenditures, we may need to raise additional capital, either through borrowings, private offerings, public offerings, or some type of business combination, such as a merger or buyout, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such pursuits. Accordingly, if we are unable to generate adequate cash from operations, and if we are unable to find sources of funding, it may be necessary for us to sell one or more lines of business or all or a portion of our assets, enter into a business combination, or reduce or eliminate operations. These possibilities, to the extent available, may be on terms that result in significant dilution to our shareholders or that result in our investors losing all of their investment in our company.

As of April 1, 2023, after which time the ATM program was discontinued, we sold 629,710 shares of common stock, under the ATM at an average price of $27.29 per share, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $17.2 million, and net proceeds of $16.7 million after commissions and fees to the Agent totaling $516 thousand. $3.0 million of the proceeds under the ATM Program were used to repay amounts due to the former senior secured lender (the “Former Lender”) under the Exchange Note (as defined below).

If we are able to raise additional capital, we do not know what the terms of any such capital raising would be. In addition, any future sale of our equity securities would dilute the ownership and control of your shares and could be at prices substantially below prices at which our shares currently trade. Our inability to raise capital could require us to significantly curtail or terminate our operations. We may seek to increase our cash reserves through the sale of additional equity or debt securities. The sale of convertible debt securities or additional equity securities could result in additional and potentially substantial dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations and liquidity, and ability to pay dividends. In addition, our ability to obtain additional capital on acceptable terms is subject to a variety of uncertainties. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any failure to raise additional funds on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial condition.

We face risks associated with strategic acquisitions.

Since our inception, we have strategically acquired several businesses, and plan to continue to make strategic acquisitions, some of which may be material. These acquisitions may involve a number of financial, accounting, managerial, operational, legal, compliance, and other risks and challenges, including the following, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations:

        any acquired business could under-perform relative to our expectations and the price that we paid for it, or not perform in accordance with its anticipated timetable;

        we may incur or assume significant debt in connection with our acquisitions;

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        acquisitions could cause our results of operations to differ from our own or the investment community’s expectations in any given period, or over the long term; and

        acquisitions could create demands on our management that they may be unable to effectively address, or for which we may incur additional costs.

Additionally, following any business acquisition, we could experience difficulty in integrating personnel, operations, financial and other systems, and in retaining key employees and customers.

We may record goodwill and other intangible assets on our consolidated balance sheet in connection with our acquisitions. If we are not able to realize the value of these assets, we may be required to incur charges relating to the impairment of these assets, which could materially impact our results of operations.

Potential future divestitures or other transactions could adversely affect our costs, revenues, profitability and financial position.

In order to position our business to take advantage of particular future growth opportunities and/or consolidate our more capable businesses, we may in the future pursue a strategy of less product and service integration and/or focus on one or more specialized facets of our products and services. These actions may require that we abandon or divest certain assets or businesses that no longer fit within our evolving strategic direction. Abandoning or divesting certain assets or businesses may entail engaging in discussions, evaluating opportunities and entering into agreements, potentially resulting in transactions involving significant risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We may not be able to find potential buyers on favorable terms, we may experience disruption to our business and/or we may divert management attention from other business concerns, lose key employees and possibly retain certain liabilities related to these potential transactions.

We have substantial debt and other financial obligations, and we may incur even more debt. Any failure to meet our debt and other financial obligations or maintain compliance with related covenants could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

On March 14, 2022, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”) with the Former Lender, pursuant to which we agreed to issue and sell to the Former Lender a senior secured promissory note (the “SPA Note”), in a private placement transaction, in exchange for the payment by the Former Lender of $65 million, less applicable expenses as set forth in the Securities Purchase Agreement, and a warrant (the “SPA Warrant”) to purchase up to an aggregate of 34,406 shares of common stock.

On August 18, 2022, we reached an agreement with the Former Lender to amend the existing SPA Note and entered into a Securities Exchange Agreement (the “August 2022 Exchange Agreement”). Pursuant to the August 2022 Exchange Agreement, we partially paid $35.2 million along with approximately $300 thousand in repayments for other fees under the SPA Note and exchanged the remaining balance of the SPA Note for a new senior secured note with an aggregate original principal amount of $35.0 million (the “Exchange Note”) and a new warrant to purchase 71,139 shares of common stock (the “Note Exchange Warrant”). Additionally, we exchanged the SPA Warrant for a new warrant for the same number of underlying shares but with a reduced exercise price (the “Modified Warrant” and, collectively with the Note Exchange Warrant, the “August 2022 Warrants”). The Exchange Note will mature on the three-year anniversary of its issuance.

On March 8, 2023, we entered into a second Securities Exchange Agreement with the Former Lender (the “March 2023 Exchange Agreement” and together with the August 2022 Exchange Agreement, the “Exchange Agreements”), pursuant to which we paid approximately $10.3 million in principal under the Exchange Note and exchanged $10.0 million in principal amount under the Exchange Note for a new senior convertible note (the “Convertible Note” and, together with the Exchange Note, the “Notes”) with an original principal amount of $10.0 million. The Convertible Note will mature on August 19, 2025.

On October 27, 2023, CP Acquisitions LLC (the “New Lender”), an entity affiliated with and controlled by Raymond Chang, our Chief Executive Officer, and I-Tseng Jenny Chan, who subsequently joined our Board of Directors, acquired the Notes from the Former Lender.

On January 25, 2024, following stockholder approval at an annual meeting of stockholders on January 8, 2024, we and the New Lender consolidated the outstanding principal and interest due under the Junior Secured Note and the Exchange Note into the Convertible Note and amended and restated the Convertible Note (as amended and

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restated, the “Restated Note”), with an outstanding principal amount of approximately $18.9 million at the time of issuance of the Restated Note. The Restated Note amended the terms of the Convertible Note by, among other things, (i) reducing the conversion price to $1.46 per share of common stock, (ii) increasing the beneficial ownership limitation to 49.99% with respect to any individual or group, provided that the New Lender may assign its right to receive shares upon conversion to Mr. Chang and/or Ms. Chan or their affiliates, in which case the 49.99% beneficial ownership limitation will apply to each of them individually, (iii) extending the maturity date to December 31, 2025, (iv) increasing the interest rate from 9% to 10% per annum, (v) increasing the default interest from 15% to 18% per annum, and (vi) providing for the payment of interest every six months, or in lieu of cash interest payments, we may issue shares as payments-in-kind at a conversion price equal to the higher of (i) $1.46 or (ii) a 20% discount to our trailing seven-day volume weighted average price as of the date of interest payment. Immediately following the execution of the Restated Note, the New Lender immediately elected to convert approximately $3.9 million of outstanding principal into an aggregate of 2,671,633 shares of common stock, and assigned its rights to receive such shares to entities affiliated with Mr. Chang and Ms. Chan. Following the conversion, there was $15.0 million in principal amount outstanding under the Restated Note.

Pursuant to the terms of the Notes, we are subject to various covenants, including negative covenants that restrict our ability to engage in certain transactions, which may limit our ability to respond to changing business and economic conditions. Such negative covenants include, among other things, limitations on our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to:

        incur debt;

        incur liens;

        make investments (including acquisitions);

        sell assets; and

        pay dividends on our capital stock.

In addition, the Notes impose certain customary affirmative and negative covenants upon us, as well as covenants that restrict us and our subsidiaries from incurring any additional indebtedness or suffering any liens, subject to specified exceptions, restrict the ability of us and our subsidiaries from making certain investments, subject to specified exceptions, and restrict the declaration of any dividends or other distributions, subject to specified exceptions.

If we are not in compliance with certain of these covenants, in addition to other actions the New Lender may require, the amounts outstanding under the Exchange Agreements may become immediately due and payable. This immediate payment may negatively impact our financial condition. In addition, any failure to make scheduled payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness would likely harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness on acceptable terms. Our cash flow and capital resources may be insufficient to pay interest and principal on our debt in the future. If that should occur, our capital raising or debt restructuring measures may be unsuccessful or inadequate to meet our scheduled debt service obligations, which could cause us to default on our obligations and further impair our liquidity.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt and other financial obligations and comply with financial covenants depends on our financial and operating performance. Our financial and operating performance will continue to be subject to prevailing economic conditions and to financial, business, and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Failure within any applicable grace or cure periods to make such payments, comply with the financial covenants, or any other non-financial or restrictive covenant, would create a default under the Notes. Our cash flow and existing capital resources may be insufficient to repay our debt at maturity, in which case we would have to extend such maturity date, or otherwise repay, refinance, and/or restructure the obligations under the Notes, including with proceeds from the sale of assets, and additional equity or debt capital. If we are unsuccessful in obtaining such extension, or entering into such repayment, refinance, or restructure prior to maturity, or any other default existed under the Notes, the New Lender could accelerate the indebtedness under the Notes, foreclose against its collateral, or seek other remedies, which would jeopardize our ability to continue our current operations.

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We may be required to record impairment charges against the carrying value of our goodwill and other intangible assets in the future.

During the three-month period ended June 30, 2022, we identified an impairment-triggering event associated with both a sustained decline in our stock price and associated market capitalization, as well as a second-quarter slowdown in the cannabis industry as a whole. Due to these factors, we deemed that there was an impairment to the carrying value of our property and equipment and accordingly performed interim testing as of June 30, 2022.

Based on its interim testing, we noted that the carrying value of equity exceeded the calculated fair value by an amount greater than the aggregate value of our goodwill and intangible assets. Accordingly, we concluded that the entire carrying value of our goodwill and intangible assets were impaired, resulting in a second-quarter impairment charge of $69.9 million. Additional information regarding the interim testing on goodwill may be found in Note 7 — Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Net, included in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

During the year ended December 31, 2022, two customers accounted for approximately $16.8 million, or 28.8%, of our total revenue. In the event of any material decrease in revenue from these customers, or if we are unable to replace the revenue through the sale of our products to additional customers, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

This concentration of customers leaves us exposed to the risks associated with the loss of one or both of these significant customers, which would materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations. In addition, some customers have experienced and may continue to experience construction delays in building out their facilities and we have been assisting these customers in addressing these delays, including in certain cases extending their payment terms. Any continued delays will likely result in a negative impact on our revenues. Further, if these customers were to significantly reduce their relationship with us, or in the event that we are unable to replace the revenue through the sale of our products to additional customers, our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted, and such impact would likely be significant.

Our reliance on a limited base of suppliers for our products may result in disruptions to our supply chain and business and adversely affect our financial results.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers for our products and other supplies. If we are unable to maintain supplier arrangements and relationships, if we are unable to contract with suppliers at the quantity and quality levels needed for our business, if any of our key suppliers becomes insolvent or experiences other financial distress or if any of our key suppliers is negatively impacted by COVID-19, including with respect to staffing and shipping of products, we could experience disruptions in our supply chain, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Many of our suppliers are experiencing operational difficulties as a result of COVID-19, which in turn may have an adverse effect on our ability to provide products to our customers.

The measures being taken to combat the pandemic are impacting our suppliers and may destabilize our supply chain. For example, manufacturing plants have closed and work at others has been curtailed in many places where we source our products. Some of our suppliers have had to temporarily close a facility for disinfecting after employees tested positive for COVID-19, and others have faced staffing shortages from employees who are sick or apprehensive about coming to work. Further, the ability of our suppliers to ship their goods to us has become difficult as transportation networks and distribution facilities have had reduced capacity and have been dealing with changes in the types of goods being shipped.

Although the ability of our suppliers to timely ship their goods has affected some of our deliveries, currently the difficulties experienced by our suppliers have not yet materially impacted our ability to deliver products to our customers and we do not significantly depend on any one supplier; however, if this continues, it may negatively affect any inventory we may have and more significantly delay the delivery of merchandise to our customers, which in turn will adversely affect our revenues and results of operations. If the difficulties experienced by our suppliers continue, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to locate alternative sources of supply for our merchandise on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to adequately purchase appropriate amounts of supplies for our products, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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As a company with clients operating in the cannabis industry, we face many particular and evolving risks associated with that industry.

We currently serve private clients as they operate in the growing cannabis industry. Any risks related to the cannabis industry that may adversely affect our clients and potential clients may, in turn, adversely affect demand for our products. Specific risks faced by companies operating in the cannabis industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

Marijuana remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

Marijuana is a Schedule-I controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act and is illegal under federal law. It remains illegal under U.S. Federal law to grow, cultivate, sell, or possess marijuana for any purpose or to assist or conspire with those who do so. Additionally, 21 U.S.C. 856 makes it illegal to “knowingly open, lease, rent, use, or maintain any place, whether permanently or temporarily, for the purpose of manufacturing, distributing, or using any controlled substance.” Even in those states in which the use of marijuana has been authorized, its use remains a violation of federal law. Since federal law criminalizing the use of marijuana is not preempted by state laws that legalize its use, strict enforcement of federal law regarding marijuana would likely result in our clients’ inability to proceed with their operations, which would adversely affect demands for our products.

Uncertainty of federal enforcement and the need to renew temporary safeguards.

On January 4, 2018, former Attorney General Sessions rescinded the previously issued memoranda (known as the Cole Memorandum) from the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) that had de-prioritized the enforcement of federal law against marijuana users and businesses that comply with state marijuana laws, adding uncertainty to the question of how the federal government will choose to enforce federal laws regarding marijuana. Attorney General Sessions issued a memorandum to all U.S. Attorneys in which the DOJ affirmatively rescinded the previous guidance as to marijuana enforcement, calling such guidance “unnecessary.” This one-page memorandum was vague in nature, stating that federal prosecutors should use established principles in setting their law enforcement priorities. Under previous administrations, the DOJ indicated that those users and suppliers of medical marijuana who complied with state laws, which required compliance with certain criteria, would not be prosecuted. As a result, it is now unclear if the DOJ will seek to enforce the Controlled Substances Act against those users and suppliers who comply with state marijuana laws.

Despite former Attorney General Sessions’ rescission of the Cole Memorandum, the Department of the Treasury, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, has not rescinded the “FinCEN Memo” dated February 14, 2014, which de-prioritizes enforcement of the Bank Secrecy Act against financial institutions and marijuana-related businesses which utilize them. This memo appears to be a standalone document and is presumptively still in effect. At any time, however, the Department of the Treasury, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, could elect to rescind the FinCEN Memo. This would make it more difficult for our clients and potential clients to access the U.S. banking systems and conduct financial transactions, which would adversely affect our operations.

In 2014, Congress passed a spending bill (“2015 Appropriations Bill”) containing a provision (“Appropriations Rider”) blocking federal funds and resources allocated under the 2015 Appropriations Bill from being used to “prevent such States from implementing their own State medical marijuana law.” The Appropriations Rider seemed to have prohibited the federal government from interfering with the ability of states to administer their medical marijuana laws, although it did not codify federal protections for medical marijuana patients and producers. Moreover, despite the Appropriations Rider, the Justice Department maintains that it can still prosecute violations of the federal marijuana ban and continue cases already in the courts. Additionally, the Appropriations Rider must be re-enacted every year. While it was continued in subsequent years and remains in effect, continued re-authorization of the Appropriations Rider cannot be guaranteed. If the Appropriations Rider is no longer in effect, the risk of federal enforcement and override of state marijuana laws would increase.

Further legislative development beneficial to our operations is not guaranteed.

One aspect of our business involves selling goods and services to state-licensed cannabis cultivators. The success of our business may partly depend on the continued development of the cannabis industry and the activity of commercial business within the industry. The continued development of the cannabis industry is dependent upon continued legislative and regulatory authorization of cannabis at the state level and a continued laissez-faire approach

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by federal enforcement agencies. Any number of factors could slow or halt progress in this area. Further regulatory progress beneficial to the industry cannot be assured. While there may be ample public support for legislative action, numerous factors impact the legislative and regulatory process, including election results, scientific findings, or general public events. Any one of these factors could slow or halt progressive legislation relating to cannabis and the current tolerance for the use of cannabis by consumers, which could adversely affect demand for our products and operations.

The cannabis industry could face strong opposition from other industries.

We believe that established businesses in other industries may have a strong economic interest in opposing the development of the cannabis industry. Cannabis may be seen by companies in other industries as an attractive alternative to their products, including recreational marijuana as an alternative to alcohol, and medical marijuana as an alternative to various commercial pharmaceuticals. Many industries that could view the emerging cannabis industry as an economic threat are well established, with vast economic and federal and state lobbying resources. It is possible that companies within these industries could use their resources to attempt to slow or reverse legislation legalizing cannabis. Any inroads these companies make in halting or impeding legislative initiatives that would be beneficial to the cannabis industry could have a detrimental impact on some of our clients and, in turn, on our operations.

The legality of marijuana could be reversed in one or more states.

The voters or legislatures of states in which marijuana has already been legalized could potentially repeal applicable laws which permit the operation of both medical and retail marijuana businesses. These actions might force businesses, including those that are our clients, to cease operations in one or more states entirely.

Changing legislation and evolving interpretations of law.

Laws and regulations affecting the medical and adult-use marijuana industry are constantly changing, which could detrimentally affect some of our clients and, in turn, our operations. Local, state, and federal marijuana laws and regulations are broad in scope and subject to evolving interpretations, which could require our clients and thus us to incur substantial costs associated with modification of operations to ensure such clients’ compliance. In addition, violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our clients’ businesses and result in a material adverse effect on our operations. In addition, it is possible that regulations may be enacted in the future that will limit the amount of cannabis growth, or related products that our commercial clients are authorized to produce. We cannot predict the nature of any future laws, regulations, interpretations, or applications, nor can we determine what effect additional governmental regulations or administrative policies and procedures, when and if promulgated, could have on our operations.

Our business depends in part on client licensing.

Our business is partly dependent on certain of our customers obtaining various licenses from various municipalities and state licensing agencies. There can be no assurance that any or all licenses necessary for our clients to operate their businesses will be obtained, retained, or renewed. If a licensing body were to determine that a client of ours had violated applicable rules and regulations, there is a risk the license granted to that client could be revoked, which could adversely affect our operations. There can be no assurance that our existing clients will be able to retain their licenses going forward, or that new licenses will be granted to existing and new market entrants.

Banking regulations could limit access to banking services.

Since the use of marijuana is illegal under federal law, there is a compelling argument that banks cannot lawfully accept for deposit funds from businesses involved with marijuana. Consequently, businesses involved in the cannabis industry often have trouble finding a bank willing to accept their business. The inability to open bank accounts may make it difficult for some of our clients to operate and their reliance on cash can result in a heightened risk of theft, which could harm their businesses and, in turn, harm our business. Although the proposal of the Secure and Fair Enforcement Banking Act, also referred to as the SAFE Banking Act, would allow banks to work with cannabis businesses and prevent federal banking regulators from intervening or punishing those banks, the legislation still requires the approval of the U.S. Senate. There can be no assurance that the SAFE Banking Act will become law in the U.S. Additionally, most courts have denied marijuana-related businesses bankruptcy protection, thus making it very difficult for lenders to recoup their investments, which may limit the willingness of banks to lend to our clients and to us.

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We may face insurance risks.

In the U.S., many marijuana-related businesses are subject to a lack of adequate insurance coverage. In addition, many insurance companies may deny claims for any loss relating to marijuana or marijuana-related operations based on their illegality under federal law, noting that a contract for an illegal transaction is unenforceable.

We participate in an evolving industry.

The cannabis industry is not yet well-developed, and many aspects of this industry’s development and evolution cannot be accurately predicted. While we have attempted to identify many risks specific to the cannabis industry, you should carefully consider that there are other risks that cannot be foreseen or are not described in this report, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial performance. We expect that the cannabis market and our business will evolve in ways that are difficult to predict. Our long-term success may depend on our ability to successfully adjust our strategy to meet the changing market dynamics. If we are unable to successfully adapt to changes in the cannabis industry, our operations could be adversely affected.

The inability of our customers to meet their financial or contractual obligations to us may result in disruption to our results of operations and could result in financial losses.

We have exposure to several customers and certain of these customers are experiencing financial difficulties. We have in the past, and may in the future, need to take allowances against and need to write off receivables due to the creditworthiness of these customers. Further, the inability of these customers to purchase our products could materially adversely affect our results of operations.

Changes in our credit profile may affect our relationship with our suppliers, which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.

Changes in our credit profile may affect the way our suppliers view our ability to make payments and may induce them to shorten the payment terms of their invoices. Given the large dollar amounts and volume of our purchases from suppliers, a change in payment terms may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our ability to make payments to our suppliers and, consequently, may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Although we believe our current sales backlog, which consists of purchase orders or purchase commitments, and our qualified pipeline of carefully vetted potential sales opportunities, will translate into future revenue, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such pursuit.

Although we conduct a detailed due diligence investigation on our current and potential customers and place a heavy emphasis on the qualification process to ensure that all active customer purchase orders and commitments relating to our backlog and all active opportunities in our qualified pipeline have been meticulously vetted, the criteria we rely on and the internal analysis we undertake is subjective. Furthermore, we have a relatively short operating history and do not have significant data relating to the conversion of our backlog into revenue and the conversion of our qualified pipeline into customer contracts. Accordingly, although we believe that a portion of our backlog and qualified pipeline will translate into bookings over the next 12 months, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such pursuit. In the event our backlog and qualified pipeline do not translate into bookings as projected, it could materially and adversely affect our business and financial performance.

We rely on third parties for certain services made available to our customers, which could limit our control over the quality of the user experience and our cost of providing services.

Some of the applications and services available through our proprietary Agrify cultivation solution, including our flagship hardware product, the Agrify Vertical Farming Unit (“VFU”), and our proprietary SaaS product, Agrify Insights™, are provided through relationships with third party service providers. We do not typically have any direct control over these third-party service providers. These third-party service providers could experience service outages, data loss, privacy breaches, including cyber-attacks, and other events relating to the applications and services they provide that could diminish the utility of these services and which could harm users thereof. Our platform is currently hosted by a third-party service provider. There are readily available alternative hosting services available should we desire or need to move to a different web host. Certain ancillary services provided by us also uses the services of

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third-party providers, for which, we believe, there are readily available alternatives on comparable economic terms. Offering integrated platforms which rely, in part, on the services of other providers lessens the control that we have over the total client experience. Should the third-party service providers we rely upon not deliver at standards we expect and desire, acceptance of our platforms could suffer, which would have an adverse effect on our business and financial performance. Further, we cannot be assured of entering into agreements with such third-party service providers on economically favorable terms.

The growth and success of our business depends on the continued contributions of Raymond Chang, as our key executive officer, as well as our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel.

Our growth and success are dependent upon the continued contributions made by our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, Raymond Chang. We rely on Mr. Chang’s expertise in business operations when we are developing new products and services. If Mr. Chang cannot serve us or is no longer willing to do so, we may not be able to find alternatives in a timely manner or at all. This may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, our growth and success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to identify, attract, hire, train and retain qualified professional, creative, technical and managerial personnel. Timothy R. Oakes, our Chief Financial Officer, notified us on January 2, 2023 that he intended to resign from his role with us effective as of February 28, 2023 to pursue other opportunities. While we are conducting a search for Mr. Oakes’ successor, there is no assurance that we will be able to identify, attract or hire a replacement in a timely manner. Competition for experience and qualified talent in the indoor agriculture marketplace can be intense. We may not be successful in identifying, attracting, hiring, training and retaining such personnel in the future. If we are unable to hire, assimilate and retain qualified personnel in the future, such inability could adversely affect our operations.

We face intense competition that could prohibit us from developing or increasing our customer base.

The indoor agriculture industry is highly competitive. We may compete with companies that have greater capital resources and facilities. More established companies with much greater financial resources which do not currently compete with us may be able to adapt their existing operations more easily to our line of business. In addition, the continued growth of the cannabis industry will likely attract some of these existing companies and incentivize them to produce solutions that are competitive with those offered by us. Our competitors may also introduce new and improved products, and manufacturers may sell equipment direct to consumers. We may not be able to successfully compete with larger enterprises devoting significant resources to compete in our target market space. Due to this competition, there is no assurance that we will not encounter difficulties in increasing revenues and maintaining and/or increasing market share. In addition, increased competition may lead to reduced prices and/or margins for products we sell.

Protecting and defending against intellectual property claims may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our ability to compete depends, in part, upon the successful protection of our intellectual property relating to our proprietary Agrify cultivation solution, including our flagship hardware product, the VFU, and our proprietary SaaS product, Agrify Insights™. We seek to protect our proprietary and intellectual property rights through patent applications, common law copyright and trademark laws, nondisclosure agreements, and non-disclosure provisions within our licensing and distribution arrangements with reputable companies in our target markets. Enforcement of our intellectual property rights would be costly, and there can be no assurance that we will have the resources to undertake all necessary action to protect our intellectual property rights or that we will be successful. Any infringement of our material intellectual property rights could require us to redirect resources to actions necessary to protect same and could distract management from our underlying business operations. An infringement of our material intellectual property rights and resulting actions could adversely affect our operations.

We cannot assure investors that we will continue to innovate and file new patent applications, or that any current or future patent applications will result in granted patents. Further, we cannot predict how long it will take for such patents to issue, if at all. It is possible that, for any of our patents that may issue in the future, our competitors may design their products around our patented technologies. Further, we cannot assure investors that other parties will not challenge any patents granted to us, or that courts or regulatory agencies will hold our patents to be valid, enforceable, and/or infringed. We cannot guarantee investors that we will be successful in defending challenges made against our patents and patent applications. Any successful third-party challenge or challenges to our patents could result in the unenforceability or invalidity of such patents, or such patents being interpreted narrowly and/or in a manner adverse

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to our interests. Our ability to establish or maintain a technological or competitive advantage over our competitors and/or market entrants may be diminished because of these uncertainties. For these and other reasons, our intellectual property may not provide us with any competitive advantage. For example:

        we may not have been the first to make the inventions claimed or disclosed in our patent application;

        we may not have been the first to file patent application. To determine the priority of these inventions, we may have to participate in interference proceedings or derivation proceedings declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), which could result in substantial cost to us, and could possibly result in a loss or narrowing of patent rights. No assurance can be given that our granted patents will have priority over any other patent or patent application involved in such a proceeding, or will be held valid as an outcome of the proceeding;

        other parties may independently develop similar or alternative products and technologies or duplicate any of our products and technologies, which can potentially impact our market share, revenue, and goodwill, regardless of

        it is possible that our issued patents may not provide intellectual property protection of commercially viable products or product features, may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be challenged and invalidated by third parties, patent offices, and/or the courts;

        we may be unaware of or unfamiliar with prior art and/or interpretations of prior art that could potentially impact the validity or scope of our patents or patent applications that we may file;

        we take efforts and enter into agreements with employees, consultants, collaborators, and advisors to confirm ownership and chain of title in intellectual property rights. However, an inventorship or ownership dispute could arise that may permit one or more third parties to practice or enforce our intellectual property rights, including possible efforts to enforce rights against us;

        we may elect not to maintain or pursue intellectual property rights that, at some point in time, may be considered relevant to or enforceable against a competitor;

        we may not develop additional proprietary products and technologies that are patentable, or we may develop additional proprietary products and technologies that are not patentable;

        the patents or other intellectual property rights of others may have an adverse effect on our business; and

        we apply for patents relating to our products and technologies and uses thereof, as we deem appropriate. However, we or our representatives or their agents may fail to apply for patents on important products and technologies in a timely fashion or at all, or we or our representatives or their agents may fail to apply for patents in potentially relevant jurisdictions.

To the extent our intellectual property offers inadequate protection, or is found to be invalid or unenforceable, we would be exposed to a greater risk of direct or indirect competition. If our intellectual property does not provide adequate coverage over our competitors’ products, our competitive position could be adversely affected, as could our business.

Our success depends in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property.

Our success depends in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To establish and protect our proprietary rights, we rely on a combination of trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret and unfair competition laws of the U.S. and other countries, as well as contract provisions, license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties, employee disclosure and invention assignment agreements, and other contractual rights, as well as procedures governing internet/domain name registrations. However, there can be no assurance that these measures will be successful in any given case. We may be unable to prevent the misappropriation, infringement or violation of our intellectual property rights, breach of any contractual obligations to us, or independent development of intellectual property that is similar to ours, any of which could reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage we have developed, adversely affecting our revenues or otherwise harming our business.

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We generally control access to and use of our proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers, and partners, and our software is protected by U.S. copyright laws.

Despite efforts to protect our proprietary rights through intellectual property laws, licenses, and confidentiality agreements, unauthorized parties may still copy or otherwise obtain and use our software and technology. Companies in the Internet, technology, and software industries frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or violations of intellectual property rights or other laws. From time to time, we may face allegations that we have infringed the trademarks, copyrights, patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights of third parties, including competitors. If it became necessary for us to resort to litigation to protect these rights, any proceedings could be burdensome, costly and divert the attention of our personnel, and we may not prevail. In addition, any repeal or weakening of laws or enforcement in the U.S. or internationally intended to protect intellectual property rights could make it more difficult for us to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, negatively impacting their value and increasing the cost of enforcing our rights.

We have obtained and applied for U.S. trademark and service mark registrations and will continue to evaluate the registration of additional trademarks and service marks or, as appropriate. We cannot guarantee that any of our pending trademark applications will be approved by the applicable governmental authorities. Moreover, even if the trademark applications are approved, third parties may seek to oppose or otherwise challenge these registrations. A failure to obtain registrations for our trademarks could limit and impede our marketing efforts.

We may need to enter into intellectual property license agreements in the future, and if we are unable to obtain these licenses, our business could be harmed.

We may need or may choose to obtain licenses and/or acquire intellectual property rights from third parties to advance our research or commercialization of our current or future products. We also cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist that might be enforced against our current or future products in the absence of such a license or acquisition. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses or intellectual property rights on commercially reasonable terms. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to develop or license replacement technology. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected products, which could materially harm our business and the third parties owning such intellectual property rights could seek either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation.

Others may assert intellectual property infringement claims against us.

Companies in the software and technology industries can own patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. In addition, various “non-practicing entities” that own patents (colloquially known as “patent trolls”) often attempt to aggressively assert their rights to extract value from technology companies. It is possible that, from time to time, third parties may claim that our products misappropriate or infringe their intellectual property rights. Irrespective of the validity or the successful assertion of any such claims, we could incur significant costs and diversion of resources in defending against these claims, which could adversely affect our operations. We may receive unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation, and there can be no assurances that favorable final outcomes will be obtained in all cases. We may decide to settle such lawsuits and disputes on terms that are unfavorable to us. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology or practices or discontinue the practices. The development of alternative non-infringing technology or practices could require significant effort and expense or may not be feasible. In addition, to the extent claims against us are successful, we may have to pay substantial money damages or discontinue, modify, or rename certain products or services that are found to be in violation of another party’s rights. We may have to seek a license (if available on acceptable terms, or at all) to continue offering products and services, which may significantly increase our operating expenses.

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Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of December 31, 2022, we had net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes which may be available to offset taxable income in future years. Approximately $675 thousand of federal NOLs will expire if not utilized by 2037 and approximately $96.0 million of federal NOLs carryforward indefinitely but are only available to offset 80% of taxable income per year. The $71.6 million state NOLs will expire depending upon the various rules in the states in which we operate. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize these NOLs before they expire. The utilization of our NOLs could be subject to annual limitations under Section 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC” or the “Code”) of 1986, and similar state tax provisions due to ownership change limitations that may have occurred previously or that could occur in the future. In general, under Section 382, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” (as defined under Section 382 of the Code and applicable Treasury Regulations) is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs to offset its future taxable income. As of December 31, 2022, we have not conducted an analysis of an ownership change under Section 382. To the extent that a study is completed, and an ownership change is deemed to occur, in the past or future, our NOLs and any NOLs of companies that we have acquired could be limited to offset any future taxable income.

There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities for federal and state income tax purposes. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we attain profitability, which could result in increased future tax liability to us and could adversely affect the results of our operations and overall financial condition.

There are no assurances that our outstanding loans will be forgivable in whole or in part.

In May 2020, we entered into a Loan Agreement and Promissory Note with Bank of America pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”) under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration (the “SBA”). We received total proceeds of approximately $779 thousand from the unsecured PPP loan which was originally scheduled to mature in May 2022. We applied for forgiveness on the $779 thousand of our PPP loan, but forgiveness was denied by the SBA. On June 23, 2022, we received a letter from Bank of America agreeing to extend the maturity date to May 7, 2025 with interest at a rate of 1.00% per year. The PPP loan is payable in 34 equal combined monthly principal and interest payments of approximately $24 thousand that commenced on August 7, 2022.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock

Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers, directors and their affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

Our executive officers, directors and their affiliates beneficially own, in the aggregate, approximately 52.57% of our outstanding shares of common stock. In particular, Raymond Chang, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, beneficially owns approximately 49.99% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and I-Tseng Jenny Chan, a member of our Board of Directors, beneficially owns approximately 49.99% of our outstanding shares of common stock, primarily as a result of a convertible note that is currently convertible into 10,273,973 shares of common stock that is held by an entity owned and controlled by Mr. Chang and Ms. Chan, which is subject to a 49.99% beneficial ownership limitation. As a result, these stockholders will be able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our articles of incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our company or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.

The large number of shares eligible for public sale could depress the market price of our common stock.

We have filed a registration statement to register the shares of common stock underlying outstanding options and shares reserved for future issuance under our equity compensation plans. Upon effectiveness of that registration statement, subject to the satisfaction of applicable exercise periods and subject to our insider trading policy, the shares of common stock issued upon exercise of outstanding options will be available for immediate resale in the U.S. in the open market.

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Sales of our common stock as restrictions end or pursuant to registration rights may make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. These sales also could cause our stock price to fall and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our common stock.

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a de-listing of our Common Stock.

If we fail to continue to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq will take steps to delist our common stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair stockholders’ ability to sell or purchase our common stock when they wish to do so, as well as adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and obtain additional financing in the future.

On April 18, 2023, we received a notice from Nasdaq (the “April Nasdaq Notice”) that we were noncompliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Form 10-K”) with the SEC by the required due date.

On May 17, 2023, we received a second notice from Nasdaq (the “May Nasdaq Notice”) that we remained noncompliant with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 (the “First Quarter Form 10-Q”) with the SEC by the required due date.

On August 16, 2023, we received a third notice from Nasdaq that we remain noncompliant with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) as a result of our failure to file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2023 (the “Second Quarter Form 10-Q”) with the SEC by the required filing date (the “August Nasdaq Notice” and, together with the April Nasdaq Notice and the May Nasdaq Notice, the “Nasdaq Notices”).

On October 17, 2023, we received a Staff Delisting Determination (the “Staff Determination”) from the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements under the Listing Rule as a result of our failure to file the First Quarter Form 10-Q, the Second Quarter Form 10-Q and the Form 10-K (collectively, the “Delinquent Reports”) in a timely manner. We filed each of the Delinquent Reports between November 28, 2023 and January 3, 2024.

On December 1, 2023, we received a notice Nasdaq stating that because we reported stockholders’ equity of $(17.17) million in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, we are no longer in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1), which requires that listed companies maintain a minimum of $2.5 million in stockholders’ equity.

We timely requested a hearing before the Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”), which hearing was held on January 11, 2024. At the hearing, we presented a plan to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1). On January 30, 2024, we received formal notice that the Panel had granted our request for an exception through April 15, 2024 to evidence compliance with Rule 5550(b)(1), which represents the full extent of the Panel’s discretion to grant continued listing. As a result, there can be no assurance that we can regain compliance by the end of the extension period.

We will take all possible actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq, but we can provide no assurances that the listing of our common stock will be restored or that we otherwise will remain listed on Nasdaq.

The exercise of all or any number of outstanding warrants or the issuance of stock-based awards may dilute your holding of shares of our common stock.

We have issued several securities providing for the right to purchase our common stock. Investors could be subject to increased dilution upon the exercise of our warrants. A total of 2,245,011 warrants were issued and outstanding as of February 28, 2024.

Additionally, 14,865 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance of currently outstanding equity-based awards to employees, directors and certain other individuals under our 2022 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan. The exercise of equity awards, including any restricted stock units that we may grant in the future, and the exercise of warrants and the subsequent sale of shares of common stock issued thereby, could have an adverse effect on the market for our common stock, including the price that an investor could obtain for their shares.

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Investors may experience dilution in the value of their investment upon the exercise of the warrants and any equity awards that may be granted or issued pursuant to the 2022 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan.

Provisions in our articles of incorporation, our by-laws and Nevada law might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Provisions of our articles of incorporation, our by-laws and Nevada law may have the effect of deterring unsolicited takeovers or delaying or preventing a change in control of our company or changes in our management, including transactions in which our stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over then current market prices. In addition, these provisions may limit the ability of stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interests. These provisions include:

        the inability of stockholders to call special meetings; and

        the ability of our board of directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could include the right to approve an acquisition or other change in our control or could be used to institute a rights plan, also known as a poison pill, that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors.

The existence of the forgoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and a “smaller reporting company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies or smaller reporting companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including (1) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (2) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this report and our periodic reports and proxy statements and (3) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, as an emerging growth company, we are only required to provide two years of audited consolidated financial statements and two years of selected financial data in this report. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any March 31 before that time or if we have total annual gross revenue of $1.0 billion or more during any fiscal year before that time, after which, in each case, we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31 or, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during any three-year period before that time, we would cease to be an emerging growth company immediately.

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited consolidated financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (1) the market value of our shares of common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the prior June 30, or (2) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, it may also make comparison of our consolidated financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.

After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur additional management time and cost to comply with the more stringent reporting requirements applicable to companies that are deemed accelerated filers or large accelerated filers, including complying with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

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We have not and do not expect to declare any dividends to our shareholders in the foreseeable future.

We have not and do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Consequently, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

As a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting. These internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to annually furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment includes disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting, as well as a statement that our auditors have issued an attestation report on effectiveness of our internal controls.

We are in the very early stages of the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing the documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404. We may not be able to remediate future material weaknesses, or to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our auditors are unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely requirements applicable to public companies, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us, and, as a result, the market price of our common stock.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation in those internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

We have identified the following material weaknesses:

        inability to close timely;

        lack of technical expertise; and

        accounting for complex financial instruments.

As a result of these material weaknesses, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of September 30, 2023.

To respond to these material weaknesses, we have devoted, and plan to continue to devote, significant effort and resources to the remediation and improvement of our internal control over financial reporting. Our plans currently include rebuild of the internal finance function and engagement of external financial consultants. The elements of our remediation plan can only be accomplished over time, and we can offer no assurance that these initiatives will ultimately have the intended effects.

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Any failure to maintain such internal control could adversely impact our ability to report our financial position and results from operations on a timely and accurate basis. If our consolidated financial statements are not accurate, investors may not have a complete understanding of our operations. Likewise, if our consolidated financial statements are not filed on a timely basis, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. In either case, there could result a material adverse effect on our business. Ineffective internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock.

We can give no assurance that the measures we have taken and plan to take in the future will remediate the material weaknesses identified or that any additional material weaknesses or restatements of financial results will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting or circumvention of these controls. In addition, even if we are successful in strengthening our controls and procedures, in the future those controls, and procedures may not be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or errors or to facilitate the fair presentation of our consolidated financial statements.

General Risk Factors

The COVID-19 pandemic and the efforts to mitigate its impact may have an adverse effect on our business, liquidity, results of operations, financial condition and price of our securities.

The pandemic involving the novel strain of coronavirus and related respiratory disease (which we refer to as COVID-19) and the measures taken to combat it, have had an adverse effect on our business. Public health authorities and governments at local, national and international levels have announced various measures to respond to this pandemic.

We have undertaken measures in an effort to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 including limiting company travel and in-person meetings. We also have enacted our business continuity plans, including implementing procedures requiring employees working remotely where possible which may make maintaining our normal level of corporate operations, quality controls and internal controls difficult. Notwithstanding these efforts, our results of operations have been adversely impacted by COVID-19 and this may continue.

Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has previously caused some temporary delays in the delivery of our inventory, although recently we are no longer experiencing such delays. In addition, the travel restrictions imposed as a result of COVID-19 have impacted our ability to visit customer sites to perform services related to our products. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation efforts have also adversely affected our customers’ financial condition, resulting in reduced spending for the products we sell.

As events are rapidly changing, we do not know how long the COVID-19 pandemic, or localized outbreaks or recurrences of COVID-19, and the measures that have been introduced to respond to COVID-19 will disrupt our operations or the full extent of that disruption. Further, once we are able to restart normal operations doing so may take time and will involve costs and uncertainty. We also cannot predict how long the effects of COVID-19 and the efforts to contain it will continue to impact our business after the pandemic is under control. Governments could take additional restrictive measures to combat the pandemic that could further impact our business or the economy in the geographies in which we operate. It is also possible that the impact of the pandemic and response on our suppliers, customers and markets will persist for some time after governments ease their restrictions. These measures have negatively impacted, and may continue to impact, our business and financial condition as the responses to control COVID-19 continue.

A prolonged economic downturn, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our business.

Uncertain global economic conditions, in particular in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our business. Negative global and national economic trends, such as decreased consumer and business spending, high unemployment levels and declining consumer and business confidence, pose challenges to our business and could result in declining revenues, profitability and cash flow. Although we continue to devote significant resources to support our brands, unfavorable economic conditions may negatively affect demand for our products.

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Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials could harm our business.

We may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of raw materials. For example, the tariffs currently imposed for importing goods from China has significantly increased. Any such an increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We use various raw materials in our business including aluminum. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials and could adversely affect our business and operating results. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials increase our operating costs and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs through increased prices for our products and services.

Matters relating to the employment market and prevailing wage standards may adversely affect our business.

Our ability to meet our labor needs on a cost-effective basis is subject to numerous external factors, including the availability of qualified personnel in the workforce in the markets in which we operate, unemployment levels within those markets, prevailing wage rates, which have increased significantly, health and other insurance costs and changes in employment and labor laws. In the event prevailing wage rates continue to increase in the markets in which we operate, we may be required to concurrently increase the wages paid to our employees to maintain the quality of our workforce. To the extent such increases are not offset by price increases, our business and operating results could be adversely affected. If we are unable to hire and retain employees capable of meeting our business needs and expectations, our business and reputation may be impaired. Any failure to meet our staffing needs or any material increase in turnover rates of our employees may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Further, we rely on the ability to attract and retain employees on a cost-effective basis. The availability of employees in the markets in which we operate has declined in recent years and competition for such personnel has increased, especially under the economic crises experienced throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Our ability to attract and retain a sufficient workforce on a cost-effective basis depends on several factors, including the ability to protect staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. We may not be able to attract and retain a sufficient workforce on a cost-effective basis in the future. In the event of increased costs of attracting and retaining a workforce, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Litigation may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time in the normal course of our business operations, we may become subject to litigation involving intellectual property, data privacy and security, consumer protection, commercial disputes and other matters that may negatively affect our operating results if changes to our business operation are required. Due to our manufacturing and sale of our products, including hardware and software, we may also be subject to a variety of claims including product warranty, product liability, and consumer protection claims related to product defects, among other litigation. We may also be subject to claims involving health and safety, hazardous materials usage, other environmental impacts, or service disruptions or failures. The cost to defend such litigation may be significant and may require a diversion of our resources. There also may be adverse publicity associated with litigation that could negatively affect customer perception of our business, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are ultimately found liable. As a result, litigation may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, insurance may not cover existing or future claims, be sufficient to fully compensate us for one or more of such claims or continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and resulting in a reduction in the trading price of our stock.

An active, liquid, and orderly trading market for our common stock may not develop, the price of our stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Our stock price could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, which include:

        whether we achieve our anticipated corporate objectives;

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        actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

        changes in our financial or operational estimates or projections;

        our ability to implement our operational plans;

        termination of the lock-up agreement or other restrictions on the ability of our stockholders to sell shares;

        changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies similar to ours; and

        general economic or political conditions in the U.S. or elsewhere.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for technology companies, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of companies’ stock, including ours, regardless of actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

We incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies, which could adversely affect our operating results.

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, including costs associated with public company reporting and corporate governance requirements. These requirements include compliance with Section 404 and other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or (“SEC”), and Nasdaq. In addition, our management team also has to adapt to the requirements of being a public company. We expect complying with these rules and regulations will substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly.

The increased costs associated with operating as a public company will decrease our net income or increase our net loss and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. Additionally, if these requirements divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

As a public company, we also expect that it may be more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as our executive officers.

Data privacy and security concerns relating to our technology and our practices could damage our reputation, cause us to incur significant liability, and deter current and potential users or customers from using our products and services. Software bugs or defects, security breaches, and attacks on our systems could result in the improper disclosure and use of user data and interference with our users and customers’ ability to use our products and services, harming our business operations and reputation.

Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information or other data-privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could harm our reputation, financial condition, and operating results. Our policies and practices may change over time as expectations regarding privacy and data change. Our products and services involve the storage and transmission of proprietary information, and bugs, theft, misuse, defects, vulnerabilities in our products and services, and security breaches expose us to a risk of loss of this information, improper use and disclosure of such information, litigation, and other potential liability. Systems and control failures, security breaches and/or inadvertent disclosure of user data could result in government and legal exposure, seriously harm our reputation and brand and, therefore, our business, and impair our ability to attract and retain customers.

We may experience cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to our systems. We may experience future security issues, whether due to employee error or malfeasance or system errors or vulnerabilities in our or other parties’ systems, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure. We may be unable

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to anticipate or detect attacks or vulnerabilities or implement adequate preventative measures. Attacks and security issues could also compromise trade secrets and other sensitive information, harming our business. As a result, we may suffer significant legal, reputational, or financial exposure, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our operations may be impaired if our information technology systems fail to perform adequately or if we are the subject of a data breach or cyber-attack.

We rely on information technology systems to conduct business, including communicating with employees and our key commercial customers, ordering and managing materials from suppliers, shipping products and providing SaaS services to our customers and analyzing and reporting results of operations. While we have taken steps to ensure the security of our information technology systems, our systems may nevertheless be vulnerable to computer viruses, security breaches and other disruptions from unauthorized users. If our information technology systems are damaged or cease to function properly for an extended period of time, whether as a result of a significant cyber incident or otherwise, our ability to communicate internally as well as with our customers could be significantly impaired, which may adversely impact our business.

Additionally, in the normal course of our business, we collect, store and transmit proprietary and confidential information regarding our customers, employees, suppliers and others, including personally identifiable information. An operational failure or breach of security from increasingly sophisticated cyber threats could lead to loss, misuse or unauthorized disclosure of this information about our employees or customers, which may result in regulatory or other legal proceedings, and have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation. We also may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber-attacks. Any such attacks or precautionary measures taken to prevent anticipated attacks may result in increasing costs, including costs for additional technologies, training, and third-party consultants. The losses incurred from a breach of data security and operational failures as well as the precautionary measures required to address this evolving risk may adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Privacy regulation is an evolving area and compliance with applicable privacy regulations may increase our operating costs or adversely impact our ability to service our clients and market our products and services.

Because we store, process, and use data, some of which contains personal information, we are subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, and other matters. While we believe we are currently in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, many of these laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in investigations, claims, changes to our business practices, increased cost of operations, and declines in user growth, retention, or engagement, any of which could seriously harm our business.

If our shares of common stock become subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares.

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do not retain a listing on Nasdaq and if the price of our common stock is less than $5.00, our common stock will be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.

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The financial and operational projections that we may make from time to time are subject to inherent risks.

The projections that our management may provide from time to time (including, but not limited to, those relating to potential peak sales amounts, production, and supply dates, and other financial or operational matters) reflect numerous assumptions made by management, including assumptions with respect to our specific as well as general business, economic, market and financial conditions and other matters, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, there is a risk that the assumptions made in preparing the projections, or the projections themselves, will prove inaccurate. There will be differences between actual and projected results, and actual results may be materially different from those contained in the projections. The inclusion of the projections in this report should not be regarded as an indication that we or our management or representatives considered or consider the projections to be a reliable prediction of future events, and the projections should not be relied upon as such.

If we were to dissolve, the holders of our securities may lose all or substantial amounts of their investments.

If we were to dissolve as a corporation, as part of ceasing to do business or otherwise, we may be required to pay all amounts owed to any creditors before distributing any assets to the investors. There is a risk that in the event of such a dissolution, there will be insufficient funds to repay amounts owed to holders of any of our indebtedness and insufficient assets to distribute to our other investors, in which case investors could lose their entire investment.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Risks Relating to This Offering

You will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

Since the price per share of our common stock being offered is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock, you will suffer substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the common stock you purchase in this offering. The exercise of our outstanding stock options and warrants could result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

Our stockholders may be subject to dilution resulting from future offerings of common stock by us.

We may raise additional funds in the future by issuing common stock or equity-linked securities. Holders of our securities have no preemptive rights in connection with such further issuances. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine if an issuance of our capital stock is warranted, the price at which such issuance is to be effected and the other terms of any future issuance of capital stock. In addition, additional common stock will be issued by us in connection with the exercise of options or grant of other equity awards granted by us. Such additional equity issuances could, depending on the price at which such securities are issued, substantially dilute the interests of the holders of our existing securities.

Our management team will have broad discretion with respect to the use of any net proceeds of this offering.

Although we have described the intended use of any net proceeds of this offering in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” our management will have broad discretion in the application of these net proceeds and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Our failure to apply these funds

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effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or ability to pay dividends and cause the price of our common stock to decline. Pending another use, we may invest the net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment grade instruments. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

There are risks, including stock market volatility, inherent in owning our common stock.

The market price and volume of our common stock have been, and may continue to be, subject to significant fluctuations. These fluctuations may arise from general stock market conditions, the impact of risk factors described herein on our results of operations and financial position, or a change in opinion in the market regarding our business prospects, financial performance and other factors.

The Pre-Funded Warrants are speculative in nature.

Commencing on the date of issuance, holders of Pre-Funded Warrants may exercise their right to acquire our common stock and pay an exercise price per share equal to $0.001 per share, subject to certain adjustments, without expiration. Following this offering, the market value of the Pre-Funded Warrants, if any, is uncertain and there can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will ever equal or exceed their imputed offering price.

We expect that the liquidity of the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.

There is no established public trading market for the Pre-Funded Warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply to list the Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system, including The Nasdaq Capital Market. Without an active market, the liquidity of the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.

Holders of the Pre-Funded Warrants purchased in this offering will have no rights as stockholders until such holders exercise such warrants and acquire our common stock.

Until holders of the Pre-Funded Warrants acquire shares of our common stock upon exercise thereof, holders of such Pre-Funded Warrants will have no rights with respect to the shares of our common stock underlying such Pre-Funded Warrants. Upon exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants, such holders will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs after the exercise date.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains, and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain, forward-looking statements and information relating to Agrify Corporation. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

        our market opportunity;

        the effects of increased competition as well as innovations by new and existing competitors in our market;

        our ability to retain our existing customers and to increase our number of customers;

        our ability to realize revenue from our customers pursuant to existing total turn-key (TTK) solution implementations;

        the future growth of the indoor agriculture industry and demands of our customers;

        our ability to effectively manage or sustain our growth;

        integration of complementary businesses and technologies;

        our ability to maintain, or strengthen awareness of, our brand;

        future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, and capital requirements;

        our ability to comply with new or modified laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business;

        the loss of key employees or management personnel;

        our financial performance and capital requirements; and

        our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property.

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

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MARKET FOR COMMON STOCK

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AGFY”. On February 27, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported by The Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.5171 per share. As of such date, we had approximately 62 stockholders of record.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, and all currently available funds for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in our current or future financing instruments.

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MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth certain information about our executive officers, key employees and directors as of the date of this prospectus.

Name

 

Age

 

Position

Raymond Chang

 

53

 

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

David Kessler

 

45

 

Chief Science Officer

Brian Towns

 

37

 

Executive Vice President and General Manager of Extraction Division

Max Holtzman

 

54

 

Director

I-Tseng Jenny Chan

 

50

 

Director

Leonard J. Sokolow

 

67

 

Director

Timothy Mahoney

 

67

 

Director

Krishnan Varier

 

44

 

Director

Raymond Chang.    Mr. Chang has served as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors since June 2019 and served as the Company’s President from June 2019 to November 2021. From September 2015 through May 2019, Mr. Chang was a lecturer in the Practice of Management at the Yale School of Management and an Adjunct Professor at Babson College as well as a managing director at NXT Ventures. In 1997, Mr. Chang founded GigaMedia, the first broadband company in Asia. In 2000, this company went public on Nasdaq (Nasdaq: GIGM) and raised $280 million, one of the largest IPOs for an internet company prior to 2000. In 2007, Mr. Chang founded Luckypai, a leading TV shopping company in China and raised venture financing from Lightspeed Venture Partners, DT Capital, Intel, Lehman Brothers, and Goldman Sachs. Luckypai was sold to Lotte Group, which is one of the largest Asian conglomerates based in Korea, for $160 million in 2010. From 2012 to 2013, Mr. Chang served as the chief executive officer of New Focus Auto, the largest automobile aftersales service company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKSE: 0360.HK). In 2014, Mr. Chang completed the sale of New Focus Auto to CDH Investments, which is one of the largest private equity firms based in Asia and raised over $150 million for the company. In 2000, Mr. Chang was selected by Fortune as one of the twenty-five “Next Generation Global Leaders Under 40” and by Business Week Asia as one of Asia’s 20 most influential new economy leaders in the 21st century. He was also featured in 2005 as a panel speaker at the World Economic Forum in Zurich, Switzerland. Mr. Chang was the former treasurer/elected board member of Shanghai American School and a member of the Young Presidents Organization — Shanghai Chapter. Mr. Chang received his BA from New York University, MBA from Yale School of Management, and MPA from Harvard JFK School of Government. Mr. Chang has served as a Director of our Company since June 2019.

David Kessler.    Mr. Kessler has served as our Chief Science Officer since July 2022. Since 2013, he has served as owner and operator of Willowbrook Orchids LLC, a national award-winning boutique orchid nursery. From 2006 through 2016, Mr. Kessler served as a Horticulturist at Atlantic Hydroponics, where he oversaw project management. Mr. Kessler has over twenty years of cannabis cultivation experience including ten years of CEA (closed environmental agriculture) indoor farm design. Mr. Kessler’s focus on the application of technology to optimize process & workflow while reducing operational costs are a common theme throughout his prolific industry publications having written for such companies as Sunlight Supply, Maximum Yield Magazine, Botanicare, and Hawthorne Gardening Company. Mr. Kessler also regularly lectures at many cannabis industry events and appears regularly on industry podcasts. Mr. Kessler’s decades of experience with horticultural lighting have allowed him the opportunity to be a product tester for companies such as Sharp Electronics and the Horticultural Lighting Group. He has worked with independent 3 party laboratories to provide unbiased testing data comparing product performance from a multitude of horticultural lighting manufacturers. Mr. Kessler received a Bachelor of Arts degree and undertook post graduate studies in biology at SUNY-Oswego.

Brian Towns.    Mr. Towns has served as the Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Extraction Division since May 2023, and previously served as Vice President of Operations from October 2021 through May 2023. Prior to that role, Mr. Towns served as Operations Manager of Precision Extraction from October 2016 through January 2019, at which time, Mr. Towns was appointed as the Director of Operations role at Precision Extraction in January 2019 until the acquisition by Agrify in October 2021. In these roles, with increasing responsibility, he oversaw multiple critical functions, including supply chain management, manufacturing, compliance, engineering, customer support, and field service teams. Mr. Town’s visionary approach and commitment to maintaining the highest

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standards ensured that Precision Extraction delivered top-notch products and services to its customers. The acquisition of Precision Extraction by Agrify in October of 2021 and the addition of industry leading equipment providers Pure Pressure, Lab Society, and Cascade Sciences put Mr. Towns in the position to lead the extraction businesses. At Agrify, Mr. Town’s expertise and innovative mindset continue to drive the extraction division’s success. With 7 years of experience in the cannabis extraction industry, Mr. Towns helps spearhead the development and implementation of cutting-edge extraction technologies, ensuring Agrify remains at the forefront of the market. Before joining Agrify, Mr. Towns honed his skills in executive protection, ensuring the safety and security of high-profile individuals from January 2012 through September 2014 as an account executive. Mr. Town’s early career led him to regional management in the wireless retail business from August 2014 to October 2016, where he demonstrated exceptional leadership and strategic acumen. Mr. Towns received his formal education in Michigan.

Max Holtzman.    Mr. Holtzman has served as a member of our Board of Directors since July 14, 2022. Mr. Holtzman has served as Operations Director at Ocean 14 Capital, a private equity impact fund focused on the Blue Economy, since December 2021. Mr. Holtzman has also served as Investments Principal at Pontos Aqua, LLC, which provides strategic advisory services in the global seafood and aquaculture space, since June 2017. Mr. Holtzman is a founding officer of Stronger America through Seafood, which strives to increase the production of healthy, sustainable, and affordable seafood in the United States. Mr. Holtzman previously served as the Vice Chairman of Capitol Peak Asset Management, which focused on infrastructure projects and companies in Rural America. Prior to Capitol Peak, Mr. Holtzman was appointed by President Obama as the Senior Advisor to the United States Secretary of Agriculture. From 2009 to 2014, Mr. Holtzman advised the Secretary on the development of new public-private partnerships, aquaculture, trade, biotechnology, and international food security. He also served as Acting Deputy Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services and as Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Marketing and Regulatory Programs. In these roles, Mr. Holtzman represented the United States in its negotiations with the Peoples Republic of China as a four-time Delegate on the Joint Committee on Commerce and Trade, and he was regularly involved with a multitude of international trade issues, trade missions, and trade negotiations. He also served as the United States Chairman of the North American Biotechnology Initiative, which includes the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Prior to this appointment, Mr. Holtzman, an attorney for over 25 years, provided strategic consulting to multi-national companies related to transportation infrastructure, project finance, public-private partnerships, health care, and government procurement. He also served as a City Attorney and Special Counsel to several municipalities. Mr. Holtzman has served as a Board Member of The Arcadia Center for Sustainable Food and Agriculture since September 2016, the Founding Chairman of Adopt-A-Classroom, and he has sat on the Global Advisory Council of Secure System since January 2018. Mr. Holtzman received his undergraduate degree in Agricultural Economics from the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and his law degree from the University of Miami.

I-Tseng Jenny Chan.    Ms. Chan joined Agrify’s Board of Directors in January 2024. Ms. Chan is a luxury brand professional with more than twenty years’ expertise in selling and curating rare gems and antiques. From 2012 to 2018, Ms. Chan served as founder of Studio Rouge in Taipei, Taiwan, where she was responsible for jewelry procurement and merchandise development. Prior to that, Ms. Chan served in various roles at De Beers, Dior Joallerie, JP Collections, Nortel Networks and Thomasville Jewelry Company. Ms. Chan received a Bachelor of Engineering from McGill University and a Master of Science at the University of Illinois.

Leonard J. Sokolow.    Mr. Sokolow has served as a member of Agrify’s Board of Directors since December 2021. Since September 2023, Mr. Sokolow has served as co-Chief Executive Officer of SKYX Platforms Corp. (Nasdaq: SKYX). He had served as in independent director and board committee member of SKYX Platforms since 2015 and continues to serve as a board member of that company. From 2015 to August 2023, Mr. Sokolow served as Chief Executive Officer and President of Newbridge Financial, Inc., a financial services holding company. From 2015 to July 2022 Mr. Sokolow served as Chairman of Newbridge Securities Corporation, Newbridge Financial, Inc.’s full service broker-dealer. From August 2022 to August 2023 Mr. Sokolow served as CEO of Newbridge Securities Corporation and Newbridge Financial Services Group, Inc., Newbridge Financial, Inc.’s, full service registered investment adviser. From 2008 through 2012, he served as President and Vice Chairman of National Holdings Corporation, a publicly traded financial services company. From November 1999 until January 2008, Mr. Sokolow was Chief Executive Officer and President, and a member of the Board of Directors, of vFinance Inc., a publicly traded financial services company, which he cofounded. Mr. Sokolow was the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of vFinance Inc. from January 2007 until July 2008, when it merged into National Holdings Corporation. From 1994 to 1998, Mr. Sokolow was founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Americas Growth Fund Inc., a closed-end registered investment company. From 1988 until 1993, Mr. Sokolow was an Executive Vice President and the General Counsel of Applica Inc., a publicly traded appliance marketing and distribution

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company. From 1982 until 1988, Mr. Sokolow practiced corporate, securities and tax law and was one of the founding attorneys and a partner of an international boutique law firm. From 1980 until 1982, he worked as a Certified Public Accountant for Ernst & Young and KPMG Peat Marwick. Since June 2006, Mr. Sokolow has served on the Board of Directors of Consolidated Water Company Ltd. (Nasdaq: CWCO) and as Chairman of its Audit Committee; as well as a member of its Nominations and Corporate Governance Committee since 2011. Since December 2021, Mr. Sokolow has served as a member of the Board of Directors of Agrify Corporation (Nasdaq: AGFY), where he currently serves as a member of the Audit Committee and the Compensation Committee. Mr. Sokolow received his B.A. and J.D. degrees from the University of Florida and a Masters of Law in Taxation from New York University Law School and remains a Certified Public Accountant.

Timothy Mahoney.    Mr. Mahoney is the owner of Caribou LLC, a strategic advisory firm he founded in 2009 that consults with CEOs and their boards on managing systemic risk and maximizing shareholder value through the identification and capture of strategic opportunities. In March 2013, Mr. Mahoney also founded Cannae Policy Group, a Washington D.C. based public policy company, where he serves as a Chief Political Strategist advising companies, associations, and governments on complex public policy issues. Mr. Mahoney served as a U.S. Representative for Florida’s 16 congressional district from January 2007 to January 2009. From 1998 to 2007, Mr. Mahoney was a Co-Founder of vFinance, Inc., which subsequently acquired National Holdings Corporation. National Holdings Corporation has grown to become one of America’s leading middle-market investment brokerage firms, managing more than $5 billion of client assets with over 50 offices worldwide. Mr. Mahoney has also been involved with companies in the cannabis industry in varying capacities as a private investor, advisor and consultant, including Atlas Biotechnologies, Inc., a licensed medical cannabis grower operating in Canada and the EU, and Volcanic Green Holdings, Inc., a holding company for a Colombian based outdoor cultivation cannabis grower and CBD extracts producer. Mr. Mahoney holds a BA degree in Computer Science and Business from West Virginia University and an MBA from George Washington University. Mr. Mahoney has served as a member of Agrify’s Board of Directors since December 2020.

Krishnan Varier.    Mr. Varier joined Agrify’s Board of Directors in June 2020, after briefly serving as a board observer. He is a Managing Partner and the Chief Investment Officer of Arcadian Capital Management, a Los Angeles, California based venture capital private equity firm particularly focused on investing in ancillary businesses related to the cannabis and hemp industries. He has served in this role since joining Arcadian in 2018 to help lead its principal investing activities, bringing more than 15 years of financial services and Wall Street deal-making experience. From 2016 through 2018, Mr. Varier formed Varier Venture Consulting LLC to assist in the growth of early-stage startup companies, primarily by providing strategic advice regarding capital raising strategies. From 2014 through 2016, Mr. Varier was an investment banker with Cowen & Company, where he covered corporate clients in the healthcare biotechnology industry. From 2013 through 2014, he was a Senior Investment Analyst with Health Care REIT, which has since been re-branded as Welltower REIT, and is a leading provider of real estate capital to seniors housing operators, post-acute healthcare providers and health systems. From 2011 through 2013, Mr. Varier was an investment banker in BofA-Merrill Lynch’s Global Corporate & Investment Banking group covering healthcare corporate clients. He began his investment banking career in 2010 with Morgan Keegan, which is now part of Raymond James Financial Services, Inc. Mr. Varier has been involved in more than $6 billion in closed capital raising and merger and acquisition transactions as an investment banking professional. Mr. Varier earned a B.A. in Economics with a focus in Business Administration in 2001 from the University of Texas at Austin. In 2010, Mr. Varier received an MBA degree in Finance and Investment Management from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kenan-Flagler Business School. Mr. Varier has served as a member of our Board of Directors since June 2020.

Family relationships

There are no family relationships among any of our executive officers or directors.

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Board and Board Committee Matters

The Board currently consists of six directors. The Board has determined that Max Holtzman, Timothy Mahoney, Leonard J. Sokolow, and Krishnan Varier are all “Independent” directors under the Nasdaq listing standards.

As required by the Nasdaq listing standards, the Board must be composed of a majority of independent directors. The committee charters are reviewed annually and updated as necessary to reflect changes in regulatory requirements and evolving oversight practices.

The Board currently has four standing committees consisting of: the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Audit Committee and the Mergers and Acquisitions Committee. No member of the Audit, Compensation or Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is an employee of the Company or its subsidiaries, and all are currently independent as defined by the Nasdaq listing standards. In March 2022, the Company became aware of a consulting arrangement between an entity partially owned by Mr. Mahoney and the Company that resulted in Mr. Mahoney not being considered independent for purposes of Audit Committee membership. Mr. Mahoney did not provide any consulting services on behalf of the consulting group and did not receive any fees from the consulting group in connection with the agreement between the consulting group and the Company. The Company promptly terminated the consulting relationship, upon which Mr. Mahoney regained his independent status for Audit Committee purposes. Each of the Audit, Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees has a written charter approved by the Board of Directors. The committee charters as well as the Company’s Code of Conduct and Ethics, which applies to all directors, officers and employees, are available under “Corporate Governance” in the Investor Relations section of our Company’s website at https://ir.agrify.com. Please note that the information contained on the Company website is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be a part of, this proxy statement.

The current members of the Committees are identified below:

Director

 

Nominating
and Corporate
Governance

 

Compensation

 

Audit

 

Mergers and
Acquisitions

Max Holtzman

 

X (Chair)

 

X

     

X

Timothy Mahoney

 

X

 

X (Chair)

 

X

 

X

Leonard J. Sokolow

     

X

 

X

   

Krishnan Varier

 

X

     

X (Chair)

 

X (Chair)

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee.    The current members of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are directors Holtzman, who chairs the committee, Mahoney and Varier. Each of these directors is independent as defined under applicable Nasdaq listing requirements. This Committee’s responsibilities include the selection of potential candidates for the Board.

Compensation Committee.    The current members of the Compensation Committee are directors Mahoney, who chairs the committee, Sokolow and Holtzman. Each of these directors is independent as defined under applicable Nasdaq listing requirements. The Compensation Committee is responsible for discharging the responsibilities of the Board with respect to the compensation of our executive officers. The Compensation Committee sets performance goals and objectives for the Chief Executive Officer and the other executive officers, evaluates their performance with respect to those goals and sets their compensation based upon the evaluation of their performance. In evaluating executive officer pay, the Compensation Committee has retained the services of a compensation consultant and considers recommendations from the Chief Executive Officer with respect to goals and compensation of the other executive officers. The Compensation Committee assesses the information it receives in accordance with its business judgment. The Compensation Committee also periodically reviews director compensation. All decisions with respect to executive and director compensation are approved by the Compensation Committee and, in the case of director compensation, ratified by the Board.

Audit Committee.    The current members of the Audit Committee are directors Varier, who chairs the committee, Mahoney and Sokolow. The Board of Directors has determined that all members of the Audit Committee satisfy the financial literacy requirements of the Nasdaq listing standards and are independent as defined under the Nasdaq listing requirements and applicable Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) rules. In addition, our Board of Directors

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has determined that each of Messrs. Varier and Sokolow qualifies as an “Audit Committee Financial Expert” as defined under SEC rules. The Audit Committee is primarily concerned with the accuracy and effectiveness of the audits of our Company’s financial statements by our independent registered public accountants. Its duties include, among other things:

        appointing, compensating, retaining, evaluating, terminating, and overseeing our independent registered public accounting firm;

        discussing with our independent registered public accounting firm the independence of its members from our management;

        reviewing with our independent registered public accounting firm the scope and results of their audit;

        approving all audit and permissible non-audit services to be performed by our independent registered public accounting firm;

        overseeing the financial reporting process and discussing with management and our independent registered public accounting firm the interim and annual financial statements that we file with the SEC;

        reviewing and monitoring our accounting principles, accounting policies, financial and accounting controls, and compliance with legal and regulatory requirements;

        coordinating the oversight by our board of directors of our code of business conduct and our disclosure controls and procedures;

        establishing procedures for the confidential and/or anonymous submission of concerns regarding accounting, internal controls or auditing matters; and

        reviewing and approving related party transactions.

The Audit Committee has adopted policies and procedures relating to the approval of all audit and non-audit services that are performed by our independent registered public accounting firm. This policy generally provides that we will not engage our independent registered public accounting firm to render audit or non-audit services unless the service is specifically approved in advance by the Audit Committee or the engagement is entered into pursuant to pre-approval procedures. On an ongoing basis, management communicates specific projects and categories of services for which the advance approval of the Audit Committee is requested. The Audit Committee reviews these requests and advises management if the Committee approves the engagement of the independent registered public accountants. On a periodic basis, management reports to the Audit Committee regarding the actual spending for such projects and services compared to the approved amounts.

The Audit Committee considers whether the provisions of these services are compatible with maintaining the auditor’s independence, and it determined such services for 2023 and 2022 were compatible.

Mergers and Acquisitions Committee.    The current members of the Mergers and Acquisitions Committee are directors Varier, who chairs the committee, Mahoney and Holtzman. The purpose of the Mergers & Acquisitions Committee is to assist the Board and the Audit Committee in evaluating any related party transactions that the Company may consider from time to time.

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation

During 2023, Messrs. Mahoney, Sokolow and Holtzman each served as members of the Compensation Committee. During 2023, no member of the Compensation Committee is or has ever been one of our officers or an employee of the Company. None of our executive officers serves as a member of the board of directors or compensation committee of any entity that has one or more of its executive officers serving as a member of our Board of Directors or Compensation Committee.

Director Nomination Process

Our Board of Directors has adopted a Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, which includes director nomination policies and provisions that are intended to describe the process by which candidates for possible inclusion in the Company’s recommended slate of director nominees are selected. The nomination policies are administered by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors.

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The Board of Directors does not currently prescribe any minimum qualifications for director candidates. Consistent with the criteria for the selection of directors approved by the Board of Directors, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will take into account our current needs and the expertise needed for board service, including experience and achievement in business, finance, technology or other areas relevant to our activities; reputation, ethical character and maturity of judgment; diversity of viewpoints, backgrounds and experiences; absence of conflicts of interest including competitive conflict that might impede the proper performance of the responsibilities of a director; independence under SEC and Nasdaq listing standards; service on other boards of directors; sufficient time to devote to Board matters; and ability to work effectively and collegially with other Board members. In the case of incumbent directors, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will review such directors’ overall service during their term, including the number of meetings attended, level of participation, and quality of performance during their term. For those potential new director candidates who appear upon first consideration to meet the Board’s selection criteria, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will conduct appropriate inquiries into their background and qualifications and, depending on the result of such inquiries, arrange for meetings with the potential candidates. Although the Company does not maintain a separate policy regarding the diversity of the Board, during the director selection process the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee does consider issues of diversity, such as occupation, gender, race and origin, when evaluating directors for nomination.

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee may use multiple sources for identifying director candidates, including its own contacts and referrals from other directors, members of management, the Company’s advisors, and executive search firms. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will consider director candidates recommended by stockholders and will evaluate such director candidates in the same manner in which it evaluates candidates recommended by other sources. In making recommendations for director nominees for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will consider any written recommendations of director candidates by stockholders received by the Corporate Secretary of the Company. Recommendations must include the candidate’s name and contact information and a statement of the candidate’s background and qualifications and must be mailed to Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, Agrify Corporation, 2468 Industrial Row Drive, Troy, Michigan 48084, Attn: Corporate Secretary.

The nomination procedures are intended to provide a flexible set of guidelines for the effective functioning of our director nominations process. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee reviews periodically the nomination procedures and anticipates that modifications may be necessary from time to time as our needs and circumstances evolve, and as applicable legal or listing standards change. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee may amend, with the approval of our Board of Directors, the nomination procedures included in the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee charter and our other governance documents at any time, in which case the most current version will be available on our website at https://ir.agrify.com.

Board Diversity Matrix (As of February 28, 2024)

Total Number of Directors

             

6

                 


Part I. Gender Identity

 


Female

 


Male

 


Non-Binary

 

Did Not
Disclose Gender

Directors

 

1

 

5

 

 

Part II. Demographic Background

               

African American or Black

 

 

 

 

Alaskan Native or Native American

 

 

 

 

Asian

 

1

 

2

 

 

Hispanic or Latinx

 

 

 

 

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

 

 

 

 

White

 

 

3

 

 

Two or More Races or Ethnicities

 

 

 

 

LGBTQ+

 

 

 

 

Did Not Disclose Demographic Background

 

 

 

 

The board diversity matrix for 2022 can be found in our definitive proxy statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 29, 2022.

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Director Qualifications

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee reviews annually with the Board the composition of the Board as a whole and recommends, if necessary, measures to be taken so that the Board reflects the appropriate balance of knowledge, experience, skills, expertise and diversity required for the Board as a whole and contains at least the minimum number of independent directors required by applicable laws and regulations. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for ensuring that the composition of the Board accurately reflects the needs of the Company’s business and, in furtherance of this goal, proposing the addition of members and the necessary resignation of members for purposes of achieving this goal. The Committee also considers the nominees’ roles in assisting with development and implementation of the Company’s strategic plan.

The Board of Directors believes that each director nominee brings a strong and unique background and set of skills to the Board, giving the Board as a whole competence and experience in a wide variety of areas, including corporate governance and board service, executive management, private equity, finance, marketing and international business. Set forth below are the particular experiences, qualifications, attributes or skills, which led the Company’s Board of Directors to conclude that each director nominee should serve as a director of the Company.

Mr. Chang, a director since June 2019, is currently the chairman and chief executive officer of the Company. Mr. Chang has a wealth of successful experience directing, managing and/or financing early-stage agricultural- and technology-based companies. Mr. Chang’s entrepreneurial nature and well-developed leadership and financial experience led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that his skills fit with the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified him to continue to serve as a director of the Company.

Mr. Holtzman, a director since July 2022, is Operations Director at Ocean 14 Capital, a private equity impact fund. Mr. Holtzman’s extensive experience in finance, government relations and international trade led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that his skills and background fit the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified him to continue to serve as a director of the Company.

Ms. Chan, a director since January 2024, provides the Company with extensive experience in business development and retail sales. Ms. Chan’s experience as an entrepreneur led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that her skills and background fit the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified her to be a director nominee.

Mr. Mahoney, a director since December 2020, through his strategic advisory firm, has worked as an independent consultant assisting management teams and boards of directors through the identification of systemic risk and the development of creative strategies targeted towards maximizing shareholder value. He also qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under SEC rules. Mr. Mahoney’s knowledge and experience with the legislative process of Congress and his diverse experience and knowledge in corporate governance led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that his skills and background fit the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified him to continue to serve as a director of the Company.

Mr. Sokolow, a director since December 2021, is currently the co-Chief Executive Officer of SKYX Platforms, a Nasdaq-listed company. Mr. Sokolow has vast financing and public company executive management and board of director experience. He also qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under SEC rules. Mr. Sokolow’s financial experience, combined with his operational and board of director experience led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that his skills and background fit the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified him to continue to serve as a director of the Company.

Mr. Varier, a director since June 2020, is a managing partner of Arcadian Capital Management, a leader in cannabis venture capital. Mr. Varier has nearly 20 years of experience in corporate finance and investment advisory. He also qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under SEC rules. Mr. Varier’s extensive capital markets experience, knowledge of the cannabis industry, as well as his experience working with cannabis companies as an investor, mentor, advisor and consultant, led the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to conclude that his overall experience fits the needs of the Board of Directors and qualified him to continue to serve as a director of the Company.

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Leadership Structure

Combining Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Roles.    Our Board of Directors is committed to the principle of independence from management and to the highest standards of corporate governance. All of our directors other than Mr. Chang and Ms. Chan are independent under Nasdaq listing rules. Our Nominating and Corporate Governance, Audit and Compensation Committees are currently composed entirely of independent directors. Our Board of Directors has adopted a flexible policy regarding the issue of whether the positions of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer should be separate or combined. This policy allows the Board to evaluate regularly whether the Company is best served at any particular time by having our Chief Executive Officer or another director hold the position of Chairman.

Currently, the Board believes there are several important advantages to combining the positions of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer is the director most familiar with our business and industry and is most capable of effectively identifying strategic priorities and leading the discussion and execution of strategy. The Company’s independent directors bring experience, oversight, and expertise from outside the Company and industry, while the Chief Executive Officer brings Company-specific experience and expertise. Combining the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman positions creates a firm link between management and the Board, promotes the development and implementation of corporate strategy and facilitates information flow between management and the Board, which are essential to effective governance. The Board currently believes that combining the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer contributes to a more efficient and effective Board, does not undermine the independence of the Board, and has no bearing on the ethical integrity of the directors.

Board of Directors’ Oversight of Risk

Our management bears responsibility for the management and assessment of risk at the Company on a daily basis. Management is also responsible for communicating the most material risks to the Board and its committees, who provide oversight of the risk management practices implemented by management. Our full Board provides oversight for risk management, except for the oversight of risks that have been specifically delegated to a committee. Even when the oversight of a specific area of risk has been delegated to a committee, the full Board may maintain oversight over such risks through the receipt of reports from the committee. In addition, the full Board may assume oversight over a particular risk, even if the risk was initially overseen by a committee, when the Board deems it appropriate. The Board and committee reviews occur principally through the receipt of regular reports from Company management on these areas of risk and discussions with management regarding risk assessment and risk management.

Committees.    The Audit Committee maintains initial oversight over risks related to the integrity of the Company’s financial statements, internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls, the performance of the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and the operation of the Company’s ethics program. The Company’s Compensation Committee maintains initial oversight of risks related to the Company’s compensation practices, including practices related to equity programs, other executive or Company-wide incentive programs and hiring and retention. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee assists the Board of Directors in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to independence of Board members and compliance with SEC rules and Nasdaq listing standards with respect to Board and committee composition.

Full Board.    At its regularly scheduled meetings, the Board generally receives several reports which include information relating to specific risks faced by the Company. As appropriate, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer or other members of senior management provide operational reports, which include risks relating to the Company’s business. At each regularly scheduled Board meeting, the full Board also receives reports from committee chairpersons, which may include a discussion of risks initially overseen by the committees for discussion and input from the full Board. As noted above, in addition to these regular reports, the Board receives reports on specific areas of risk from time-to-time, such as cyclical or other risks that are not covered in the regular reports given to the Board.

Stockholder Communications with the Board

The Board of Directors welcomes communications from stockholders. Parties interested in the Company and the operation of the Board or its committees, in addition to contacting management, may contact the Chairman of the Board or the Independent directors as a group by directing requests for such contact through the Company’s Corporate Secretary at “Board of Directors/Non-Employee Directors, Agrify Corporation, 2468 Industrial Row Drive, Troy, Michigan 48084, Attn: Corporate Secretary”. Communications by e-mail should be addressed to board@agrify.com and marked “Attention: Corporate Secretary” in the “Subject” field. Requests for contact, except for those stockholder

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communications that are outside the scope of Board matters or duplicative of other communications by the applicable stockholder and previously forwarded to the intended recipient, shall be directed by the Company’s Corporate Secretary to (a) the intended recipient or (b) the Chairman of the Board, who shall, subject to advice and assistance from the Company’s legal advisors, (i) be primarily responsible for monitoring communications from shareholders and other interested parties and (ii) provide copies or summaries of such communications to the other directors as he or she considers appropriate.

Code of Ethics and Business Conduct

The Company has adopted a code of ethics and business conduct that applies to our directors, officers and employees. This code of ethics and business conduct (which we refer to as a “code of conduct”) may be accessed and reviewed through the Company’s website at https://ir.agrify.com. Any amendments to, or waivers from, any provisions of the code of conduct which apply to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or any person performing similar functions, will be disclosed either on a Current Report on Form 8-K or on our website promptly following the date of any such amendment or waiver.

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

This section describes the compensation paid, or payable, for the last two fiscal years to our named executive officers. Our named executive officers during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 were Raymond Chang, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, David Kessler, our Chief Science Officer, Brian Towns, our Executive Vice President and General Manager of Extraction, Timothy Oakes, our former Chief Financial Officer, and Stuart Wilcox, our former Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Oakes resigned as Chief Financial Officer effective as of February 28, 2023. Mr. Wilcox resigned as Chief Operating Officer effective as of May 22, 2023.

Summary Compensation Table

The table below summarizes the total compensation paid or earned by each of the named executive officers noted below for services rendered in all capacities, during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. As a smaller reporting company, we are only required to provide two years of compensation information for our named executive officers.

Name and Principal Position

 

Year

 

Salary
($)

 

Stock
Awards
($)

 

Option
Awards
($)

 

Non-Equity
Incentive Plan
Compensation
($)

 

Non-qualified
Deferred
Compensation
Earnings
($)

 

All Other
Compensation
($)

 

Total
($)

Raymond Chang

 

2023

 

300,070

 

330,000

 

 

 

 

29,268

 

659,338

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

2022

 

350,479

 

471,000

 

 

175,000

 

 

33,099

 

1,029,578

David Kessler

 

2023

 

220,521

 

310,000

 

 

 

 

28,588

 

559,109

Chief Science Officer

 

2022

 

220,233

 

177,550

 

 

50,000

 

 

32,164

 

479,947

Brian Towns

 

2023

 

211,726

 

310,000

 

 

 

 

29,268

 

550,994

Executive Vice President and General Manager of Extraction

 

2022

 

125,655

 

20,550

 

 

15,034

 

 

14,198

 

175,447

Timothy Oakes

 

2023

 

51,920

 

 

 

 

 

3,340

 

55,260

Former Chief Financial Officer

 

2022

 

264,454

 

247,625

 

 

78,022

 

 

19,626

 

609,727

Stuart Wilcox

 

2023

 

122,061

 

 

 

 

 

8,188

 

150,727

Former Chief Operating Officer

 

2022

 

142,539

 

316,000

 

 

 

 

8,188

 

466,727

____________

(1)      Amounts are based on the aggregate grant date fair value of stock awards and stock option awards made to the Named Executive Officers in the applicable year. The reported amounts are calculated in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 718. See Note 13 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on November 28, 2023, regarding assumptions underlying the valuation of our equity awards.

(2)      Represent amounts earned by each Named Executive Officer under our performance-based annual incentive plan.

(3)      Amounts represent payment of health plan premiums as per Company policy.

(4)      Mr. Oakes resigned as Chief Financial Officer effective February 28, 2023.

(5)      Mr. Wilcox resigned as Chief Operating Officer effective May 22, 2023.

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Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End

The following table sets forth outstanding equity awards for Named Executive Officers as of December 31, 2023.

 

Option Awards

 

Stock Awards

Name

 

Grant Date

 

Vesting Period

 

Number of
Securities
Underlying
Unexercised
Options

 

Option Exercise Price

 

Option Expiration Date

 

Number of
Shares of
Stock
That Have
Not Vested

 

Market
Value of
Shares of
Stock
That Have
Not Vested

Exercisable

 

Unexercisable

 

Raymond Chang

 

5/6/20

     

1,689

 

 

$

456.00

 

5/6/30

 

 

$

   

7/20/20

     

71

 

 

 

456.00

 

7/20/30

 

 

 

   

10/19/20

     

1,324

 

 

 

972.00

 

10/19/30

 

 

 

   

2/17/21

     

3,069

 

181

 

 

2,768.00

 

2/17/31

 

 

 

   

8/8/22

     

 

 

 

 

 

1,000

 

 

1,256

   

11/28/23

     

 

 

 

 

 

217,120

 

 

272,659

David Kessler

 

5/6/20

     

168

 

 

 

456.00

 

5/6/30

 

 

 

   

7/20/20

     

159

 

 

 

456.00

 

7/20/30

 

 

 

   

10/19/20

     

241

 

 

 

972.00

 

10/19/30

 

 

 

   

2/17/21

     

208

 

12

 

 

2,768.00

 

2/17/31

 

 

 

   

8/8/22

     

 

 

 

 

 

333

 

 

418

   

9/30/22

 

(4)